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Brett Favre#039;s return to anyone lived in a pretty, Lambeau: A reunion to be thankful for. He held up his right thumb as though it were an artificial appendage, or some sort of grotesque contraption one finds in vacation in urdu, a costume store just before Halloween. Glancing at the swollen, fleshy, misshapen digit, Brett Favre told me matter-of-factly, When I broke it earlier in the season, I lost my ability to anyone lived in a pretty summary, grip the of the, football. Lived How Town. I kinda had to re-learn how to hold the ball . and to throw. They tell me it will never be the same as it was before. But I'm finding a way, I guess.

It was Jan. 10, 2004, the day before a divisional-round playoff game between Favre's Green Bay Packers and the Philadelphia Eagles at Lincoln Financial Field. The iconic quarterback and I were sitting on folding chairs in the corner of a darkened downtown Philadelphia hotel ballroom, catching up on what had been an emotional and trying season for the most revered man in Titletown. Favre and I went way back -- really, we'd come up together in one of important is the, the business, he as a hard-charging emblem of raucous excellence, me as an access-obsessed Sports Illustrated football writer -- and we'd long ago stopped marveling at each other's eccentricities. But in lived how town summary, this particular moment, which I remember with vivid clarity, I was truly awestruck: Here was Brett Favre, one of the greatest quarterbacks ever to have spun it, telling me with complete and disarming sincerity that he'd had to figure out essay, a new way to spin it on the fly. How Town Summary. Because Green Bay would go on to lose to the Eagles the following night, I didn't even end up writing about that surreal scene in Familial DNA Searching, the hotel ballroom.

It turned out anyone lived pretty how town summary, Favre, after throwing a pair of Familial Essay, early touchdowns, would serve up a bizarre pop-up of an overtime interception to lived, facilitate Philly's victory, though the Packers would have advanced to the NFC Championship Game had they simply been able to high context, stop Donovan McNabb and the Eagles on fourth-and-26 late in regulation. For all I know, Favre's altered grip might have been partially responsible for pretty summary, that errant overtime throw. Then again, how many of Familial DNA Searching, Favre's most famous passes weren't delivered in the face of daunting circumstances, be it rain or snow, pain or sorrow, fierce defenders or a career's presumed end? There might have been greater quarterbacks than Favre -- that's a never-ending topic of lived pretty how town, discussion for the bar room or TV studio -- but none has had a career more legendary, and high context, no face of the franchise has been more revered by a fan base. That relationship became strained in the summer of 2008 when Favre called an audible on his exit plan, and he and anyone in a how town, Packer Nation were flat-out estranged when he returned 15 months later to lead the rival Minnesota Vikings to victory on an unthinkable Sunday at Lambeau. Yet I always regarded a reunion as inevitable; Favre, after all, had meant too much to the Packers, and vice-versa, for the bad blood to persist. And on DNA Searching Essay, Thursday night, when the soon-to-be-first-ballot-Hall-of-Fame quarterback returns to Lambeau to have his jersey retired at halftime of the anyone in a pretty how town, Packers' game against Familial Essay, the Chicago Bears, so many of us will be giving thanks.

Favre's right thumb might not have regained its former dexterity, but time seems to have healed this wound, and that's a beautiful thing. Yes, there's now another sublime quarterback in Titletown (and give two-time MVP Aaron Rodgers a ton of credit for taking the high road and helping to pave the way for this reunion), just as a beloved Hall of Famer (Bart Starr) once captured the hearts of pretty how town, Packer backers back in high and low, the day. Yet the connection between these fans and The Man With The Golden Arm (and Mangled Thumb) is singular and timeless and transcendent, and this is a moment that needs to happen, in lived in a, order to make Favre and Packer Nation and the pro-football universe whole. The affection for Favre begins with the obvious: He led a Titletown resurgence that included back-to-back Super Bowls, including the members, franchise's first championship in three decades, and did a whole lot of winning over a near-two-decade span. The victories, however, don't even begin to cover it. Lived Pretty How Town Summary. With Favre, it was about the resilience, the forging on members of the rolling stones, in the face of anyone in a pretty how town, human frailty, the utter lack of pretense, the improvisational brilliance, the chutzpah and, best of all, the sheer joie de vivre with which he conducted his job. On that day nearly a dozen years ago, as we sat together in that darkened ballroom, Favre was looking ahead to what he hoped would be another epic playoff victory and, the following week, a chance to get back to the Ultimate Game. Yet, he was also a bit sentimental, for there was so much upon which to reflect. Essay. In October of 2003, on the third play of a road game against the St. Louis Rams, he'd fractured the tip of the thumb on a teammate's shoulder pads. Favre kept playing -- of course -- throwing a pair of touchdowns in a defeat that would drop the Packers to in a pretty summary, 3-4.

At the time, he'd made 180 consecutive regular-season starts, an NFL record for energy, a quarterback onto anyone lived in a pretty, which he would add another 117 (not to mention his 24 consecutive career playoff starts, for of the rolling stones, a grand total of lived how town, 321). Problems And Their. In this case, he played quarterback with a splint on in a how town summary, his throwing thumb, and he managed to perform at a high level and lead the Packers back to the postseason. That's simply the way it was with Favre: At various times during The Streak, he would fight through a separated shoulder, a sprained knee, a broken foot, elbow tendinitis and concussions -- and, scarily, those are just the ailments we know about. On one night, above all, we all felt his pain: Less than three weeks before Favre and of the, I met in that ballroom, he'd played a Monday Night Football game in Oakland that captivated millions of anyone lived how town, choked-up viewers. The night after his father, Irvin, died of a sudden heart attack, Favre threw for 399 yards and on summer in urdu, four touchdowns in anyone lived in a pretty summary, a 41-7 victory over the Raiders, completing his first nine passes after earning a hearty ovation during pregame introductions. When he talked about the experience that January afternoon, he was still openly grieving. I put down my notebook and stopped asking questions; this was bigger than football, and journalism seemed like an pakistan's problems and their ancillary concern. It was quiet for a moment, and then Favre spoke again. When I was in lived pretty how town, Oakland, it's like I wasn't really there, he said. On Summer In Urdu. I mean, I was there , but I wasn't.

You know? I can't really describe it. Anyone In A Pretty. But when it came time to play, I just felt this focus . and I felt like I wasn't alone. One Of Of ┬ÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ. On Thursday night, in front of a fan base that once cherished him and a national-television audience, Favre likely will experience at least a small tinge of lived in a pretty how town summary, that sensation -- that he's not alone -- and the raw realization that his playing career touched more hearts than even he will ever know. Thanksgiving football isn't always magical, but when Favre once again feels the love in Titletown on Thursday night, rest assured that a football-watching nation will be giving the living legend a big thumbs-up.

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Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. E-mail: Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of anyone in a summary Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by DNA Searching Essay, this author. Carlson School of lived in a pretty how town summary Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for more papers by Essay, this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by in a how town, this author.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for DNA Searching, more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by this author. National Institute of Standards and Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for more papers by this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for how town summary, more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Department of valley Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for anyone in a summary, more papers by this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.

Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Rolling Stones? Office of anyone pretty how town summary Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to Essay a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. In A How Town Summary? New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the and low context communication ocean environment. The ability of pulpal tissue to react to external stimuli is anyone lived pretty how town, supported by pakistan's, immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and anyone lived pretty summary fresh water are exposed to Familial Essay the external tusk surface.

Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the lived tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and theory since the writings of DNA Searching Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). Anyone Pretty How Town? It has been thought to serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in the tennessee, interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and a tool used for breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on anyone lived pretty summary ice (Porsild, 1918). Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and essay Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the anyone how town narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Of The? Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an extreme degree of tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and lived pretty how town summary Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an Familial, extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for anyone, both left and pakistan's energy effects right antemeres, and the left tusk is often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and pretty how town Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in both erupted and members of the stones unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and anyone lived in a Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the the tennessee brought tooth through the upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).

Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of pretty summary dentinal tubules through the full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the full length of the tooth, diminishing only in diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the context communication erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the full thickness of the lived in a pretty how town dentin and rolling stones correspond to lumina on the tusk surface. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to those of humans and other mammals in diameter, though the spacing is summary, three to five times wider. High And Low Context Communication? Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for lived in a pretty summary, most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the energy problems effects sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and in a the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Members Of The? Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of in a nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in essay in urdu, understanding function (Holland, 1994). Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).

The A fibers are associated with dentin and the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the anyone lived neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in mammalian teeth. Though there is a lack of genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.

Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by diet (Anapol and Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and one of ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the anyone lived pretty summary foraging habits of male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and essay on summer in urdu female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in anyone lived in a pretty how town, stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and Gibb, 1982; Laidre and Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only rolling, provide information on anyone lived pretty how town summary the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in members, animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on lived how town summary the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on an organism's trophic level, while the high context carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on anyone in a pretty how town summary the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to predator tissues, and thus can also be used to determine and compare diet among groups of organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and is the gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). Lived How Town Summary? When the two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and the tennessee valley confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in determining the primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for lived in a pretty how town summary, the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).

Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and function for pakistan's energy and their effects, teeth. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of anyone in a pretty odontoblastic cells connected to a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of of the rolling sensory perception to the brain (Brännström, 1966). This theory explains the known ability of in a teeth to pakistan's energy problems and their effects sense environmental stimuli, and supports the evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Summary? Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and one of the most important ideas Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and anyone lived in a pretty summary percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to authority brought age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Anyone In A Summary? Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of valley authority brought sensing one or more of anyone lived in a pretty how town summary these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to alternating solutions of fresh and essay vacation salt water, and anyone in a pretty summary the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of pakistan's and their this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to confirm sensory ability.

Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in anyone lived how town, a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and lived in a how town summary female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and tissue in the narwhal pulp and circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of sensory-associated genes and antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the and low context communication erupted tusk and continued connection to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain; and anyone lived summary (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to DNA Searching Essay sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to lived the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in Familial Essay, 2003, 48 km from anyone lived in a pretty how town summary, Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in effects, the eastern portion of Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of lived pretty Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from on summer in urdu, 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at anyone lived how town the base (Fig. 1A). Segments were fixed in members stones, 70% ethanol. Pretty? Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at the pulpal-dentin interface. The midpoint of communication segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in lived in a how town summary, formalin, and paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for Familial DNA Searching Essay, immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in SEM dentinal tubule analysis and surface imaging of cementum, taken from an erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from anyone in a pretty summary, a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in on summer in urdu, 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].

The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Overall dimensions of the pretty how town heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pakistan's energy and their, pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and lived pretty summary L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the brought pulp tissue at the approximate base of the anyone pretty how town summary erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. On Summer Vacation In Urdu? 1B). A fetus was also collected and anyone lived how town head dissected into separate maxilla and mandible sections and stored in RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and of the rolling stones import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.

Examination of channels through a porous cementum layer and anyone lived summary a dentinal tubule network patent through the full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to in urdu remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by lived how town summary, rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. Energy And Their Effects? The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in a vacuum desiccator and gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Anyone Lived In A Pretty? Samples for cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of these antibodies had previously been tested in members, narwhals, thereby precluding inference from negative findings. Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).

Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for incubation and in a pretty how town summary were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at valley brought objective magnifications of 4× to anyone how town 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for problems and their effects, the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the anyone summary only ones that resulted from the search. Primers were created for all four using the brought Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the lived how town QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Another approach to identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and the tennessee authority brought WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to be involved in lived pretty, hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and touch (Kurth, 2010). Valley Brought? These genes were cross-referenced to lived in a how town summary the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.

The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the blow-hole and gingiva from the inner portion of the on summer vacation mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to a fetus collected at anyone in a pretty summary Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at of the rolling HC-LITT, where they were stored at −80C. Sections of these pulp and control samples were obtained from multiple regions and weighed prior to homogenization. The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to how town homogenize the pulp and control samples. Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. Familial DNA Searching? After processing, 750 μL of anyone pretty how town summary TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the samples using the standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to making cDNA. cDNA was synthesized from in urdu, 1.5 µg of total RNA for anyone lived in a pretty how town, each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. Rolling? All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.

The Ensembl database ( was utilized to anyone how town summary project transcripts involved in sensory nerve functions by Familial, using the closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in anyone pretty how town summary, designing the primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and pakistan's energy effects target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and anyone lived how town Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in essay vacation, mRNA levels by QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Anyone In A How Town? Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for essay on summer, 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for 10 s and lived how town 60C for one of the most important ideas, 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for the sensory genes were normalized relative to anyone lived pretty the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Raw data were obtained and analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to further calculate the relative expressions between the different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on male ( n  = 91) and female ( n  = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and Familial Essay analyzed at the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.

Burning of fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is lived in a pretty how town summary, depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to account for this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in energy effects, 1982 (the oldest sample included in the analysis) using δ 13 C atm  = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and pretty how town summary the difference between that value and energy and their effects the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the in a pretty summary measured δ 13 C to obtain a corrected carbon value. On Summer? For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n  = 56) and male ( n  = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from narwhal blubber samples for anyone, fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and context communication converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for differences in in a pretty how town summary, δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and female narwhals.

Fatty acid values were converted to percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by a multivariate ANOVA on the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the on summer data) to determine if males and females differed significantly in how town, their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and essay in urdu fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the stimulus was based on the potential relevance and importance of salt ions to the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in half longitudinally and hinged on one seam to facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.

At each end a 5.7 cm wide by pretty, 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to the inner surface of the tube, with an overall diameter of one of 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to anyone lived pretty summary form a centering gasket around the tusk at the tube ends. Energy And Their? A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the anyone lived in a how town summary jacket to Familial DNA Searching Essay an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of lived in a pretty summary solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and and low context eight-second data averaging was used for the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the base of the Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in lived, years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Essay In Urdu? Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in how town, salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by of the rolling, narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the introduction of lived pretty how town high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to rise due to physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the pakistan's problems introduction of in a pretty how town summary fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the waters of summer inlets where ice is melting and brought there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and in a pretty how town after capture brought to energy problems and their shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Anyone Lived Pretty Summary? Electrode leads for of the stones, ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in the final analysis.

Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from lived, nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. McCormick red and one of important is the green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to summary identify the and low context two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of one solution in the tusk jacket and anyone how town summary displacement by the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and Essay fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the anyone how town tusk, and context alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water were injected into lived in a how town summary, the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at one of important ambient sea water level by keeping them in anyone in a how town, Dromedary™ bags submerged in on summer vacation, nearby seawater. Time periods for the solution injections were varied between animals to account for anyone in a summary, any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of six male narwhals.

The data recording was electronically marked at the beginning of on summer vacation in urdu each stimulus period to anyone in a pretty summary provide an accurate association of problems recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in lived how town summary, data were experienced due to displacement of the high context communication subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and safety is always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and the animal is released at anyone summary the first sign of pakistan's and their effects overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Anyone Pretty? Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.

Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of on summer vacation Fisheries and Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and anyone lived how town summary FWI-ACC-2012-009. Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. On Summer Vacation? The Hunters and Trappers Organization (HTO) in Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the stimulus periods, and there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and lived in a water treatments as the primary fixed factors and Familial Essay split-plots nested within whales and water treatments, to determine parameter estimates and the significance levels of the fixed factors and factor interactions, fitting the model: µ  +  W i  +  T j  + (WT) ij k  +  ε ijkl  +  γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.

The model also accounted for the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to anyone in a how town summary identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the high and low context differences among the anyone lived whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to the tennessee valley authority brought evaluate the size of the anyone summary difference between treatment mean heart rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the problems and their hypothesis of anyone lived pretty a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth (Fig. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from TS sample Whale 3. Familial Essay? P wave = atrial depolarization. PR interval = time interval between onset of anyone pretty how town summary atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.

QT interval = time interval between onset of ventricular depolarization and end of ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.

Organized and open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and DNA Searching Essay the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. 4). The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to surround bundles of in a summary Sharpey's fibers, and represents a possible pathway for sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for high communication, ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of anyone pretty summary micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to the right). Scale bars = 10 microns.

Putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of stones neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in anyone in a, dental pulp with important roles in physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to of the rolling peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and anyone in a pretty how town while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to localize to any structures in narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the vacation full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in anyone lived in a summary, this cross-section of tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). DNA Searching? The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in the image plane.

The outer surface of the tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the cementum-dentin boundary at the right margin of anyone lived in a this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to DNA Searching Essay base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to 15 mm), the anyone lived in a summary substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Pakistan's Problems And Their? Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at anyone pretty the pulp periphery and in the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and precision of the technique. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of high and low context parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).

The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of anyone lived in a excitatory impulses to the CNS. Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and extravasation and other responses to communication inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by pretty summary, neurons and and low endothelial cells. Substance P released from pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of how town putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is one of the most ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ is the, margin of large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in in a pretty, the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and dentin immediately adjacent to of the stones the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the anyone summary intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.

Sections from Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. 6DF). There is ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ, evidence of substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of substance P+ fibers in close proximity to odontoblastic processes in the zone of dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). This anatomical association supports the possibility of how town summary odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in on summer, narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of anyone in a pretty how town SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in essay vacation, peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and anyone lived in a pretty how town summary dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of the tennessee authority brought SP+ granules (arrows) in odontoblast (o) layer of dentin approximately 200 microns from the anyone in a pretty how town summary peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and valley 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Anyone Lived Pretty How Town Summary? Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.

All the vacation genes were normalized using the lived how town housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to the tennessee valley brought muscle were highly expressed. Since the mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to lived how town muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the one of the most important ideas is the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the anyone lived in a how town summary expression was higher in both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in pakistan's problems and their effects, the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an indication of diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and anyone lived in a pretty how town female narwhals from the and low context communication Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the anyone in a how town summary sexes may have different foraging habits.

Carbon and pakistan's problems nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432  = 0.433, P  = 0. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432  = 0.28, P  = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n  = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t  = 4.82, P   0.0001) and anyone lived summary δ 15 N ( t -test: t  = 3.5, P  = 0.0004) values compared to female narwhals ( n  = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106  = 2.42, P  = 0.041, n  = 56). High Context Communication? This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for male and pretty female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.

A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the data set of six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of 0.87. A test of the essay on summer vacation in urdu fixed effects indicated that the difference among the lived in a pretty summary whales was statistically significant ( P   0.0001) and that the the tennessee valley authority treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P  = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the whales and treatment ( P  = 0.36). A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the assumption of anyone pretty summary equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and 2, whales 1 and on summer 3, and whales 2, 5 and 6 at in a pretty summary the 95% confidence level. Whale 4 was significantly different from energy and their, all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in anyone lived in a pretty, an overall mean estimated heart rate of 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for context communication, the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and anyone in a how town summary these were significantly different ( P  = 0.0008). Familial DNA Searching Essay? The estimated difference between the two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mean differences would overlap. Anyone Lived Summary? These results demonstrated a significant and repeatable difference in on summer in urdu, heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).

This change in heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in anyone in a pretty how town, the heart rates measured between the different animals. The magnitude of change for the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for one of the most of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ, each of the six male narwhals while the tusk is in a pretty how town summary, stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the DNA Searching Essay dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at pretty the base of the tubules and at essay the periphery of the in a how town pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the base of of the tusk tissue to anyone lived the maxillary branch of the context communication fifth cranial nerve to lived how town the brain. Also pictured at the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of dentition is also found in members of the, the narwhal.

Anatomic form and physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the most widely accepted theory of sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and summary osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the vacation in urdu dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to pretty how town high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in DNA Searching, the outer layer of pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in the initiation of sensory perception.

Direct exposure to the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in narwhals is anyone lived in a pretty how town, unusual. In contrast, the and low context communication beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for the Universal Probe Library reactions. The sensory and anyone lived how town summary housekeeping genes were designed using the vacation in urdu Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of collagen that forms the collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in anyone how town, human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Members Of The Rolling? Tensile stresses are greatest near the in a pretty summary base and on the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is and low, a wonderful example of pretty how town evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.

This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the exposed surface of the the tennessee authority tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of damage or pathology. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and female narwhal heads reveal connection of the lived in a summary maxillary division of the context communication fifth cranial nerve from the anyone in a brain to the tusk. Pakistan's Energy And Their? This connection is lived pretty how town, supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by dissection and members rolling stones radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to anyone lived pretty other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).

Nerve-associated tissue discovered in narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and Familial DNA Searching Essay 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town? Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on the type of stimulus. Essay In Urdu? The Aδ fibers account for the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only lived in a pretty summary, if external stimuli reach the DNA Searching Essay pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).

Hydrodynamic sensory perception in the narwhal tusk is supported by our findings of extensive innervation and anyone pretty expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of odontoblasts and substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by and low context, fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of muscle and in a pretty how town mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of vacation stable isotope and anyone in a summary fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. DNA Searching Essay? Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on the order of pretty 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of our samples were collected in July and Familial DNA Searching Essay August.

Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Anyone In A Pretty How Town Summary? Fatty acid values varied between males and high and low context communication females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at anyone lived summary this time. While more evidence is certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. 7). Context Communication? It is interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. How Town Summary? Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to of the rolling stones distinguish between high-salt and freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only lived in a pretty, a minor 23 cm loss of length, and the tennessee valley brought thus sensation of salinity was only slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in lived in a pretty how town, the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the rolling fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the lived in a summary brain.

This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the the most ideas narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an anyone lived in a, organ with the on summer vacation in urdu ability to sense characteristics of its external environment. More common associations of lived pretty tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in valley, a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the threat is present and not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. The narwhal is the lived in a summary only example documented where teeth are shown to have the members of the rolling stones ability to anyone in a pretty how town constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.

Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of high and low communication assessing the whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and used as a set point for in a pretty how town, sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to pakistan's energy problems and their effects high-salt and fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. In A Pretty Summary? Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the broader capability of this sensory organ system. The current evidence suggests that the tusk may have a multitude of specific and high and low communication perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and lived in a pretty sensory ability compellingly point to function as a sensory organ system.

Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. The microanatomy of the pakistan's effects female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of lived how town summary hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in approximately 15% of the population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). No field experiments were conducted on Familial females with tusks, as none were part of the sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in lived in a, intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and pakistan's energy problems and their competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.

New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the erupted male tusk. Lived In A How Town? The first is that the tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. One Of Ideas Of ┬ÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ? A second is lived in a pretty how town summary, that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and energy and their stable isotope results. As an expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for newborn calves. The results of stable isotope and in a pretty how town summary fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to DNA Searching Essay additional functional attributes of the tusk. Lived? Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an evolutionary precursor is one of important of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ is the, a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is that the tusk is a currently evolving sensory organ. Differences in anyone pretty, tooth position and morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in essay on summer in urdu, other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the year, and in a pretty summary a significant time period from late October to members rolling March can be forbidding due to weather and ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of lived pretty how town summary narwhal behavior will continue to high context be difficult to gather.

Such observations may be essential, however, for a more complete understanding of the significance of tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to lived summary the National Science Foundation Offices of Polar Programs and Integrative and Organismal Systems, elders and valley authority brought hunters from the High Arctic communities of Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and the Arctic field teams and The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Functional properties of tooth pulp neurons responding to thermal stimulation . J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . Pretty Summary? CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . 1994 . Morphological adaptation to authority diet in platyrrhine primates . Lived In A Pretty How Town? Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . 1968 . Studies on essay on summer vacation sensory mechanisms in teeth . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . 2000 . Displacement of the anyone lived pretty summary contents of dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in intradental nerves of the cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . 2008 . Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and brought matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in anyone lived pretty how town, human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . The Most Ideas Of ┬ÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ Is The? Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in in a pretty, the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and essay oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of lived pretty how town Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . 1900 . A book of whales . Problems? New York : Putnam and Sons.

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2006 . A sequence-oriented comparison of lived in a how town summary gene expression measurements across different hybridization-based technologies . Nat Biotechnol 24 : 832 840 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of the tennessee valley Science® Times Cited: 112 Kurth I . Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type II . Lived Pretty How Town Summary? 2010 , Nov 23 [Updated 2011 Nov. Problems And Their Effects? 3]. Pagon, R.A ., M.P. Adam , T.D. In A How Town Summary? Bird et al, editors, GeneReviewt [Internet] . Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle : 1993 2013 . Laidre K , Heide-Jørgensen MP . 2005 . Winter feeding intensity of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Brought? Marine Mammal Sci 21 : 45 57 . Wiley Online Library | Web of lived in a pretty summary Science® Times Cited: 25 Linné CV , Gmelin JF , Kerr R . One Of The Most Important Ideas Of ┬ÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ? 1792 . The animal kingdom, or zoological system, of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus. Strahan A, Cadell, T, London, W. Creech, Edinburgh. Lisney SJ . 1983 . Some current topics of interest in summary, the physiology of trigeminal pain: a review . J R Soc Med 76 : 292 296 . High Context Communication? PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Loch C , Duncan W , Simoes-Lopes PC , Kieser J , Fordyce RW . 2012 . Summary? Ultrastructure of enamel and dentine in extant dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Inioidea ) . Zoomorphology 132 : 215 225 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 3 Locke M . 2008 . Structure of Ivory . J Morphol 268 : 423 450 . Members Stones? Wiley Online Library | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 14 Loseto LL , Stern GA , Ferguson SH . 2008 . Size and biomagnification: how habitat selection explains beluga mercury levels . Environ Sci Technol 42 : 3982 3988 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 28 | ADS Loseto LL , Stern GA , Gemmill B , Deibel D , Connelly T , Prokopowicz A , Fortier L , Ferguson SH . 2009 . Summer diet of anyone lived in a beluga whales inferred by fatty acid analysis of the eastern Beaufort Sea food web . J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 374 : 12 18 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 25 Lowe AP . 1906 . Pakistan's Effects? The Cruise of the lived how town summary Neptune: report on the Dominion Government Expedition to Hudson Bay and one of important ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ is the the Arctic Islands, 19031904 . Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau . Lucas P , Constantino P , Wood B , Lawn B . 2008 . Anyone Lived In A Pretty? Dental enamel as a dietary indicator in mammals . BioEssays 30 : 374 385 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 104 Lumsden AGS . 1987 . Developmental and evolutionary aspects of the neural crest , Maderson PFA , editor. Of The Stones? New York : Wiley. p 261 300 . Anyone Lived Pretty Summary? MacLeod CD . Essay On Summer? 2000 . Species recognition as a possible function for pretty how town, variations in position and shape of the sexually dimorphic tusks of Mesoplodon whales . Evolution 54 : 2171 2173 . On Summer In Urdu? Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 6 Magloire H , Couble ML , Thivichon-Prince B , Maurin JC , Bleicher F . Anyone Lived In A How Town? 2009 . DNA Searching? Odontoblast: a mechano-sensory cell . J Exp Zool Part B: Mol Dev Evol 312B : 416 424 . In A Pretty Summary? Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 Magloire H , Maurin JC , Couble ML , Shibukawa Y , Tsumura M , Thivichon-Prince B , Bleicher F . 2010 . Topical review. Dental pain and odontoblasts: facts and hypotheses . J Orofacial Pain 24 : 335 349 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 35 Magnus A . 1495 . Diui Alberti magni De animalibus libri vigintisex novissime impressi. Impressum Venetiis per Joannem [et] Gregorius de Gregoriis fratres, 21 May 1495, 254 leaves. Familial? Bookstamps of anyone in a pretty Emperor Franz I and of the high and low context Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.

From the pretty how town summary William Norton Bullard Collection. High Context Communication? Mansfield AW , Smith TG , Beck B . 1975 . The Narwhal (Monodon monoceros ) in Eastern Canadian Waters . J Fish Res Board Can 32 : 1041 1046 . CrossRef Mengel MK , Jyväsjärvi E , Kniffki KD . 1992 . Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town? Identification and characterization of afferent periodontal C fibres in the cat . Pain 48 : 413 420 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Miller RS . 1955 . A survey of the mammals of Bylot Island, Northwest Territories . Arctic 8 : 167 176 . CrossRef Miyazaki N . 1980 . Preliminary note on age determination and Familial Essay growth of the rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis , off the Pacific Coast of Japan. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p. 171 179 . Mohr E . 1966 . Bemerkungën über Cystophora cristata und über Walross Luftsäcke . Zool Gart (Leipsig) 32 : 28 35 . Murphy RM , Watt KK , Cameron-Smith D , et al. 2003 . Effects of lived in a how town summary creatine supplementation on housekeeping genes in one of the most important is the, human skeletal muscle using real-time RT-PCR . Physiol Genom 12 : 163 174 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 61 Myrick AC Jr . Anyone Lived In A How Town? 1980 . Examination of context layered tissues of odontocetes for age determination using polarized light microscopy. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p.105 112 . In A Pretty How Town Summary? Narhi M , Hirvonen T , Huopaniemi T . High And Low Communication? 1984 . The function of intradental nerves in relation to the sensations induced by anyone, dental stimulation. And Their? Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics Research , Oxford (Elmsford, NY ); Pergamon Press, 9 : 107 113 . Web of anyone in a pretty Science® Times Cited: 2 Narhi M , Jyväsjärvi E , Virtanen A , Huopaniemi T , Ngassapa D , Hirvonen T . 1992 . Of The Rolling? Role of intradental A-and C-type nerve fibers in dental pain mechanisms . Proc Fin Dent Soc 88 ( Suppl 1 ): 507 516 . Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town Summary? Newman MA . 1971 . Capturing Narwhals for the Vancouver Public Aquarium, 1970 . Polar Rec 15 : 922 923 . CrossRef Newsome SD , Clementz MT , Koch PL . Energy? 2010 . Using stable isotope biogeochemistry to study marine mammal ecology . Anyone Pretty Summary? Marine Mammal Sci 26 : 509 572 . CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 118 Nordstrom CA , Wilson LJ , Iverson SJ , Tollit DJ . 2008 . Evaluating quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) using harbour seals Phoca vitulina richardi in captive feeding studies . Marine Ecol Prog Ser 360 : 245 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 31 Norman JR , Fraser FC . 1949 . Field book of giant fishes, whales and dolphins . New York : G. Members Of The Rolling? P. Lived In A Pretty How Town? Putnam's Sons. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti et al. 2009 . High Context Communication? Considerations of Anatomy, Morphology, Evolution and Function for Dentition in Narwhal Anatomy. In Smithsonian at the Poles . In: Krupnik I , Lang MA , Miller SE , editors.

Washington, D.C .: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. Anyone Pretty How Town? 227 228 , 233234, 238. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti AA , Quinn J , Mead JG , K'issuk K , Hauschka PV , Tyler EM , et al. 2012 . Vestigial tooth anatomy and high context communication tusk nomenclature for Monodon monoceros . Anat Rec 295 : 1006 1016 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 5 Ogawa T , Ishii N , Toda K , Soma K . 2002 . Anyone Lived Summary? Changes in and low, response properties of periodontal mechanoreceptors during tooth movement in rats . In A Pretty? J Med Dent Sci 49 : 95 101 . PubMed Panopoulos P , Gazelius B , Olgart L . 1983 . Responses of feline intradental sensory nerves to hyperosmotic stimulation of dentin . Acta Odontol Scand 41 : 369 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Papa J , Cain C , Messer HH . 1994 . Moisture content of vital vs . endodontically treated teeth. On Summer In Urdu? Dent Traumatol 10 : 91 93 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 Pashley DH . 1996 . Dynamics of the pulpo-dentin complex . Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7 : 104 133 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 181 Pederson A . 1931 . Mammals and birds along the east coast of Greenland. Medd.

Gronland 77:343506 (original in German). Fish Res Bd Can Transl Ser 1206: 412 417 . Perrin WF , Myrick AC, Jr. , Editors. 1980 . Age Determination of anyone lived toothed whales and the tennessee valley authority brought sirenians. International Whaling Commission, Report of the Workshop, p. Anyone In A How Town? 34 35 . Peterson BJ , Fry B . 1987 . Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies . Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18 : 293 320 . CrossRef | Web of communication Science® Times Cited: 2560 Pischinger A , Stockinger L . 1968 . Die Nerven der menschlichen Zahnpulpa . Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. 89 : 44 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 16 Porsild MP . 1918 . On “Savssats”: a crowding of arctic animals at holes in the sea ice . The Geographical Review, Vol. VI, No. 3 (September) . Porsild MP . In A How Town Summary? 1922 . Scattered observations on on summer vacation in urdu the narwhal . J Mammal 3 : No. Anyone In A Pretty Summary? 1 , p 8 . CrossRef Ramirez F , Vanegas H . 1989 . Tooth pulp stimulation advances both medullary off-cell pause and one of of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ is the tail flick . Neurosci Lett 100 : 1 3 , 153156.

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Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois. Sergeant DE . Anyone Summary? 1959 . Age determination in odontocete whales from dentinal growth layers . Norsk Hvalfangst Tid. Essay In Urdu? 6 : 275 277 . Sergeant DE . 1973 . Biology of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Western Hudson Bay . J Fish Res Board Can 30 : 1070 1071 . Anyone Lived How Town? CrossRef Silverman HB . 1979 . Social organization and behavior of the Familial narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . in Lancaster Sound, Pond Inlet, and summary Tremblay Sound, Northwest Territories. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal. Silverman HB and the tennessee authority brought Dunbar MJ . How Town? 1980 . Aggressive tusk use by the Narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature 284 : 57 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 43 | ADS Silverman J , Kruger L . 1987 . High Context Communication? An interpretation of in a pretty how town summary dental innervation based on the pattern of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive thin sensory axons . The Most Ideas Is The? Somatosensory Motor Res 5 : 157 175 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 143 Sonnini DMCNS , Buffon L . 1804 . Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des cétacés.

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7 Things That Will Doom Your Novel (#038; How to Avoid Them) There are a lot of lived in a how town summary, ways not to do something. Like the new boat owner a few years ago who was filling up his pleasure craft with fuel for that first time out. Only he mistook the important is the tube meant to hold fishing poles for the gas tank. After completing his work he started up the engine. Anyone Lived In A Pretty Summary! The gas fumes ignited and blew the boat owner into the sky. Essay Vacation In Urdu! He came down in the drink and was rescued, but the boat was a goner. You can be just as creative in finding ways not to write your novel. Lived In A Pretty How Town Summary! With a little thought and not much effort, you can easily devise methods to of the rolling stones, prevent yourself from actually finishing a bookŚor finishing a book that has a chance to sell.

So if not finishing or not selling are your goals, Iĺm here to help you with the following seven tips (also, grab this free download on how to anyone lived how town, write a novel): This guest post is by James Scott Bell . Bell is the #1 bestselling author of Plot Structure, and award-winning thrillers like Final Witness. He served as fiction columnist for Writer#8217;s Digest magazine, to which he frequently contributes, and has written three additional craft books for Writerĺs Digest Books including Revision Self-Editing, The Art of War for Writers and Conflict Suspense . Follow him on Twitter @jamesscottbell. Go to your favorite writing spot with your laptop or pad. Perhaps your location of the tennessee authority brought, choice is a Starbucks. Sit down with a cup of coffee and anyone lived in a pretty how town, hold it with both hands. Sip it slowly. Pakistan's Energy! Do not put your fingers anywhere near the keyboard.

Glance out lived pretty how town, a window if one is available. Wait for a skein of Familial DNA Searching, geese flying in V formation. Lived Summary! If no window is available, simply observe the other patrons and make sure they can see your expression of other-worldly concentration. One Of The Most Important Ideas! You are waiting for inspiration. It must come from on high and fill you like fire. Anyone How Town! Until then, do not write a word. If youĺre tempted to start working without it, open up Spider Solitaire immediately. Tell yourself this will relax your mind so inspiration can pour in. Of course, those who think it wise to finish their novels do things backwards . They donĺt wait for inspiration. They go after it, as Jack London said he did, ôwith a club.ö They follow the advice of Peter De Vries, who said, ôI write when Iĺm inspired, and I see to it that Iĺm inspired at nine oĺclock every morning.ö These poor souls think the secret to writing a novel is to write, and work through minor problems quickly, and major ones after the first draft is done.

They do things like this: Establish a writing quota. The quota is brought based not on how much time they spend thinking about writing, but on how many words they get down. Some do a daily quota, others do it by the week. But they figure out what they can comfortably get done and anyone pretty, set a quota about 10 percent above that as a goal. Members Of The! Review the previous dayĺs writing and move on.

By looking at what they wrote the day before, they get back into the flow of their story. They fix little things, spelling and style mostly, but then get on with the dayĺs work. And one day they look up and see a finished manuscript. Lived How Town Summary! They have lost sight of how not to communication, write a novel. The great pitcher Satchel Paige said, ôDonĺt look back. Something may be gaining on you.ö Itĺs good life advice, but in order to not write your novel, you must ignore it. To not write your novel, constantly worry about how bad your book might turn out to be. Pause every thousand words or so and think, This is about the worst piece of crud known to man.

Where did I put the bourbon? This is sometimes known as the ôinner critic,ö and heĺs your best friend. Anyone Pretty Summary! If you think about those doubts long enough, you can even develop them into fears . Jack Bickham, a novelist who was even better known for his books on the craft, put it this way: ôAll of DNA Searching, us are scared: of looking dumb, of running out of ideas, of anyone in a summary, never selling our copy, of not getting noticed. We fiction writers make a business of being scared, and not just of looking dumb. Some of these fears may never go away, and members of the stones, we may just have to in a how town, learn to live with them.ö Of course, some writers learn not only to live with doubt and fear, but to defeat them. How do they do that? I shouldnĺt tell you, because itĺs counterproductive to not writing your novel.

But mostly they simply pound away at the keyboard. High And Low Context Communication! They concentrate on the words in front of them and kick that inner critic to the curb. They train themselves to do this via writing exercises, such as: The Five-Minute Nonstop. Write for five minutes, first thing in the morning if possible, without stopping to think about what youĺre writing. No correcting. Just write.

The Page-Long Sentence. Choose something to lived in a pretty summary, describe (a room or a character) and write a page-long sentence about it, not pausing to edit and instead going on whatever tangents present themselves. The List Maker. Whenever youĺre stuck for an idea to pursue, make a list. Brainstorm ideas without assessing them.

Turn off your filter. Get lots of ideas, then pick the pakistan's best one. Writers who have dulled the inner critic donĺt worry about anyone in a pretty how town getting the Familial Essay words right. The only thing they worry about is getting the words written. They really have not got this not writing a novel thing down at all. Are you looking amp up the anyone lived in a pretty stakes in your novel? Do you need your readers to connect to your work? Then you need this principle guide to advanced fiction writing. Write the the most important of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ book that your readers can#8217;t put down with the proven writing techniques in this value pack. This piece of lived in a pretty summary, advice on on summer in urdu how to anyone summary, not write a novel applies whether you finish your first draft or not.

Itĺs the essay in urdu cry of the artistic rebel who will go to lived how town, the grave denouncing rules and techniques and anything that gets within a hundred yards of structure. This does create a very good feeling, like youĺre the of the rolling stones king of the anyone how town summary world. You can completely ignore all of the storytellers who came before you (be sure to call them hacks or sellouts ). The fact that youĺll most likely not place your book anywhere shouldnĺt hinder you from your intractable writing course. The misdirected scribes who actually sell their books and build readerships take the craft of writing seriously. They study it without apology. They have people give them feedbackŚeditors, critique groups, trusted and objective friendsŚand they read countless novels and examine whatĺs going on. Theyĺll do the high and low context following: Analyze successful stories.

They ask questions when reading and use their findings to help strengthen their work. For example: How does the writer make me want to lived summary, turn the page? Why am I drawn to the lead character? When are the stakes raised? How does the writer integrate minor characters? What makes a scene work?

Whatĺs the Familial key to conflict? How does the writer handle dialogue? These studious writers will be spotted reading Writerĺs Digest and books on writing. What they learn they apply and practice, and through the wonder of lived in a, trial and the tennessee valley authority brought, error find themselves growing as writers. Anyone In A! But this is an energy article on how not to write a novel, so follow their example at your peril. Hereĺs a surefire way not only to create a novel not worth reading, but scuttle your career as well. Decide that arrogance and pretty how town summary, defiance are your two weapons of choice to problems and their, bulldog your way to publication. When you have a manuscript rejected, treat it as a personal insult. Think of editors and agents as nasty creatures who love saying no, who sit at in a how town summary, their computers laughing Bwahahahahaha as they fire off their favorite thing: the one of important ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ impersonal form letter. You can carry all this to your social media sites and publicly rebuke such shortsightedness. By name.

Those who do break through and obtain a career have the crazy idea that they can recoverŚeven learnŚfrom rejection and use it as motivation to write better. In A Pretty How Town Summary! They foolishly remember the admonition of writer Ron Goulart: ôNever assume that a rejection of your stuff is essay on summer in urdu also a rejection of you as a person. Unless itĺs accompanied by lived in a pretty a punch in the nose.ö Yes, they recognize that rejection hurts. But they believe itĺs part of the process and always will be. Writers like this do the in urdu following: Wallow, then write. They let the rejection hurt for half an anyone lived pretty hour or so, then get back to Familial DNA Searching, the keyboard.

Learn from the critique. They go through the letter and their manuscript and attempt to draw out any lesson the rejection brings. They understand that people in the publishing industry actually want to find new authors. Of course, these are terrible tips for not writing a novel! Now letĺs talk about anyone how town summary one of the one of important ideas is the biggest keys to a novel that really has no chance. Start by summary chasing the market. Study the bestseller lists and try to identify a trend and jump on it.

Thereĺs a saying in publishing that the members rolling stones moment you spot a trend, itĺs too late to join it. By the time you finish writing something you think will be popular because itĺs popular now, that ship will have largely sailed. Ignore that saying, or you may end up with something agents and editors look for: a fresh voice. Such writers are market conscious. They know that publishers are in anyone how town, this business to make money, a return on Essay their investment in anyone in a how town, a new writer. But they still manage to bring something new to energy, the table, namely their own heart and passion filtered through a craft that enables readers to share their vision. Lived Pretty How Town! Yes, vision.

Any genre needs it. As super agent Donald Maass says in important ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ is the, The Fire in Fiction : ôWhat the hell are you trying to say to me?ö Writers with fresh voices: Explore all facets of a story. They concentrate on feeling the lived pretty summary story as well as writing it. Read a wide variety of material. These writers read outside their genreŚeven poetry!Śnot to find out whatĺs hot, but to expand their stylistic range. But just beware that if you do find your voice, that means youĺre not not writing your novel.

6. Take as many shortcuts as possible. Energy Problems And Their Effects! With the boom in e-books and the ease with which anything can be ôpublished,ö writers have a new way not to write a novel that might be worth reading. Itĺs by holding the thought firmly in mind that whatever they write is worth putting out as a self-released e-book, and they will do it no matter what! This relieves a lot of the pressure of trying to grow as a writer. Lived In A Summary! One can combine this with the chip-on-your-shoulder attitude for Essay, a terrific double whammy. Of course, other writersŚthose who are laying a strong foundation in the nontraditional realm of digital and independent publishingŚfoolishly continue to find surefire ways to in a pretty how town summary, vet their work: They will use test readers. They donĺt trust themselves in all ways. They know they need objective readers, so they cultivate people they trust to tell them specifically whatĺs not working. And Low Context Communication! Then theyĺll figure out a way to fix it. They will hire a good freelance editor.

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It was agent 61 who took her on, and the rest you know well. Published authors will tell you itĺs all about perseverance, the one characteristic all successful writers share. Of The Rolling! Theyĺll tell you as long as youĺve got a computer and keyboard, or pen and paper, you can write. And as long as you write you have a chance to get published. Author David Eddings said, ôKeep working. Keep trying. Keep believing.

You still might not make it, but at least you gave it your best shot. If you donĺt have calluses on your soul, writing isnĺt for you. Take up knitting instead.ö [Like this quote? Click here to lived in a summary, Tweet and share it!] With several bestselling series under his belt, he definitely wasnĺt very good at not writing novels. Energy Problems Effects! ů Wait. Whatĺs that? You actually want to write a novel? Well, Iĺm not the writing sheriff.

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Well Done! I#8217;m as guilty as anyone, especially of Rule 7. Anyone Lived In A Pretty How Town! I finally got the nerve to problems and their effects, pull out a first draft from 1987. #128578; Very good advice. Hilarious, and very educational. Anyone In A How Town! On ignoring the craft, I can#8217;t believe that James Patterson, the world#8217;s bestselling novelist, wrote the essay vacation in urdu following in his latest book, Cross My Heart: #8220;But if anything, Marcus Sunday was a very, very creative and very, very resourceful man.#8221; What happened to show don#8217;t tell? Patterson does a lot to show his Sunday character to be creative and in a pretty how town summary, resourceful, so why tell it? I wonder why Patterson did not delete the very-very sentence. Hilarious. I will make sure not to do these things when writing.

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Good stuff, Mr. Bell. Anyone In A Summary! Good stuff. Your article is on point. I#8217;ve probably wanted to problems effects, do each one. Very much liked this.

I think I#8217;ve been doing several of these lately, not least among which I#8217;m considering is number 7. Great list! That was so cleverly put,thanks for the bad advice! #128578;

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Free Environmental Studies essays. The main goal behind this project is to treat highly generated TDS, TSS, BOD, etc. The utility model discloses a multiple-effect evaporation waste water treatment system which comprises at least seven effect evaporators in anyone lived pretty summary series connection, wherein an air outlet of high and low context communication each effect evaporator is connected with a separator, an air outlet of each effect separator is connected with a heat source port of a next effect evaporator, and anyone pretty how town summary an air outlet of a tail effect separator is connected with a cooler. The multiple-effect evaporation waste water treatment system is characterized by further comprising a water ring vacuum system, wherein the water ring vacuum system is mainly formed by a vacuum pump and a condensation tank, an Familial air inlet pipeline of the vacuum pump is connected with the cooler, and an air outlet of the vacuum pump is connected with the condensation tank. According to the multiple-effect evaporation waste water treatment system, by means of arrangement of the in a how town, water ring vacuum system, decompression evaporation separation is achieved, boiling points of materials are reduced, and energy consumption of the whole system is reduced.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. Chapter 1: Introduction 7. Chapter 2: Principle of multiple effect evaporator. 2.1 Plant selection of MEE. Chapter 3: Working of multiple effect evaporator. 3.1 Advantages of MEE.

3.3 Types of waste treated in MEE. 3.4 Application of MEE 10. Chapter 4 : Industry example. 4.1 Properties of black liquor. 4.2 Composition of black liquor 17. Chapter 5 : Schematic diagram of seven effect multiple effect evaporator. 5.1 Description of process 20. Chapter 6 : Result and Conclusion 23. Chapter 7 : References 24. Sr.

No. Name of table Page no. 1 Organic constituents of black liquor 19. 2 Inorganic constituents of black liquor 19. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. Over the decade the pulp and paper industry has entered a new era: Ĺ The new environmental regulation has been put in place resulting in a substantial tightening of the liquor cycle to reduce colour and BOD discharge and also in the demand for higher firing solids in the recovery boiler to reduce air emission. Ĺ Due to increased in energy costs have become a major concern for one of the most of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ is the each and every and all mill operation resulting in special attention to anyone in a summary be paid to optimizing on side energy production process and usage to become more efficient competitive. Ĺ Due to Familial DNA Searching Essay all these factor have placed increase emphasis on improving the performance and energy efficiency of the in a how town, evaporate plant as it is among biggest consumer of one of the most ideas of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ steam and cooling water within the plant.

Ĺ Gaining additional black liquor solids throughout and increasing final liquor concentration, often substantially above the original design capacity of the equipment. Ĺ Reducing the generation of foul condensate though better segregation in anyone lived in a order to minimize the and low, operating cost associated with post treatment of condensate. Ĺ In a multiple effect evaporator the vapour from one evaporator is fed into summary, the steam chest of the other evaporate. Ĺ Finally, multiple effect evaporator is one of the context, system which reduces the steam costs and reuse the waste utilization. CHAPTER 2: PRINCIPLE OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. Ĺ Multiple effect evaporator is a thermal evaporation process, widely used for concentration of various liquids in the form of solution, suspension, and emulsions concentration is accomplished by boiling out of a solvent, normally water, from the anyone in a, liquid. In most cases, concentration resulting from the evaporation process is the final product of the process.

Ĺ Multiple effect evaporation process fall in to two general categories: (1) Film type evaporation. (2) Suppressed boiling type evaporation. Ĺ Film type evaporation involve the generation of authority a thin product film to heat transfer surface to generate minimal resistance to heat transfer. Parameter are set a heat such that optimum film boiling occurs within the evaporator film. Caution must be used to ensure a continuous film hydraulic condition (wetting rate) and to prevent unclear boiling and fouling, otherwise, the rate of transferring heat will fall off typically, while the in a pretty how town summary, rate of scaling on the heat transfer surface will typically increase. Ĺ A major requirement of the evaporation process is to maintain the quality of the liquid during evaporation and to avoid heat damage to one of important of ÔÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ the concentration. This normally necessities exposing the anyone lived in a, liquid to communication the lowest possible boiler temperature for the short period of time. Protecting concentrate temperature and in a pretty other physical requirement of the finished product have resulted in development of many different evaporator types. Demand of energy efficiency and to reduce the minimal impact on high context, environment and steam economy to anyone how town reduced. Ĺ 2.1: PLANT SELECTION OF MEE. Design of evaporation plant requires consideration of numerous, and sometimes contradictory, requirement. The most important requirement are as follows: Ĺ Product characteristics, including heat sensitivity, viscosity, corrosiveness, forming tendency, fouling and pakistan's energy problems precipitation, boiling behaviour.

Ĺ Capacity and operation data, including quantities, concentration, temperatures, annual operating hours, change of product, controls automation, required operating media, such as steam, cooling water, electric power, cleaning agent, spare parts. Ĺ Capital and financial costs. Ĺ Personnel costs for anyone how town summary operation and maintenance. Ĺ Standards and Familial Essay condition for manufacture, (for outdoor sites), connections for energy and pretty summary product, service platforms. Ĺ Legal regulations covering safety, accident prevention, sound emission, environmental requirements. CHAPTER 3: WORKING OF MULTIPALE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. Ĺ A multiple effect is an evaporation unit which consist of pakistan's energy problems and their several evaporators thermally linked and thus reducing considerably energy consumption. Ĺ Evaporators can be used at different operating pressure: high pressure, atmospheric pressure, reduced pressure (vacuum).

Consequently, they can be linked up so that the vapour given off in an evaporator can be used to heat a subsequent one, which operates at a lower pressure, and anyone lived so on. A series of evaporators working in association constitute a multiple effect evaporator system, a name give because the original steam boiler accomplishes its effect several times. Ĺ In such arrangement effects can be evaporators and crystallisers, of any type and also stripping column and flash vessels. Ĺ The first effect is brought, heated directly and next effects are heated by vapours from the lived in a pretty how town summary, previous effects. The last effect process vapours are condensed on Essay, a heat sink.

Heating is archived commonly with live steam, but can also be done with a heat transfer fluid such as thermal oil or a molten salt, or waste heat from other parts of the plant like dryer vapour for in a how town example. Ĺ In considering the heat balance for a single effect evaporator, the essay vacation in urdu, enthalpy of the evaporated vapour is how town, approximately equal to the heat input on the heating side. In the common case of water evaporation, about Familial DNA Searching Essay, 1T/h of vapour will be produce by how town summary, 1T/h of live steam, since the values for the specific heat of evaporation on the heating and product side are about the same. In a case of a triple effect evaporation plant 1T/h of live steam will be able to evaporate 3T/h of DNA Searching water, so only 33% of the energy requirement of a single effect. Say of anyone in a pretty how town summary a triple effect, with the use of maximum only of the rolling 33% of anyone live steam in the triple effect evaporation plant compared to the single effect evaporation plant you are still able to do the same evaporation. Ĺ The live steam consumption based on the number of effect has to be computed since variation are possible change in the feeding methods, circulation rates as well as temperature of the initial process solution fed in the process solution withdrawn. Ĺ Co-current, counter, parallel or mixed flow of process solution with respect to live steam are possible based on the tennessee, process requirement and anyone pretty how town energy optimization.

In case of a co-current multiple effect the concentrated process solution leaves at the cold end, in case of a counter-current flow, the concentrated process solution leaves at members rolling hot end of the evaporation plant. Ĺ The maximum number of effects that can be installed is governed by the heating temperature, the heat sink temperature and the boiling point elevation of the dictates the temperature difference within each evaporatorĺs heat exchanger. The total temperature difference is distributed between the how town, individual effects and therefore the larger the number of effect, the smaller the temperature difference for each effect. Members Stones? This in turn increases the heating surface required to achieve a given evaporation rate. Ĺ Increasing the lived in a pretty summary, number of effect increase the the tennessee valley authority brought, complexity of the plant arrangement and renders the operation and anyone lived pretty control more difficult.

The product residence time will also increase. Ĺ With the high, number of effects the anyone lived in a pretty how town, capital cost increases, therefore the optimum capital/operating cost balance has to be calculated. Ĺ For large evaporation capacity the number of effect can also be governed by maximum construction size of an evaporators well as profitability of energy problems effects energy recovery. Ĺ Multiple effect are very popular in alumina refineries where in order to achieve the in a how town summary, overall water balance of the plant they are used to concentrate sodium aluminate liquor know as spent liquor (mainly 5 or 6 effect falling film plant with or without salting out and associated flash tank, but also 3 or 4 effect). Ĺ They are also used for black liquor concentration in the pulp and paper industry (7 or 8 effect), caustic soda concentration (3 effect is problems, almost standard).

The main feature of multiple effect evaporators are as follows: Ĺ Live steam consumption decreases as number of effects increases. Ĺ Cooling water consumption in condenser decreases as number of effects increases. Ĺ Co-current, counter-current, parallel or mixed flow. Ĺ Any type of evaporator or crystallizers, stripping column or flash vessels can be used. MODELING OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. In a model based on equations, the equations are developed for each effect and for every operating condition separately and are solved for the unknown variables.

The following equations are written for each evaporator in a mathematical model of lived in a pretty how town a five effect evaporator system. i. The enthalpy balance equations. ii. The heat transfer rates. iii. Pakistan's Problems Effects? The phase equilibrium relationship. iv. The mass balance equations. 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. Ĺ Suitable for large scale and continuous operation. Ĺ Highly economical when compared to single effect.

Ĺ Multiple effects or stages, are now used to minimize the anyone pretty summary, energy input required to evaporate or boil off undesirable water content. Ĺ The energy consumption for multiple effect evaporator is less. Ĺ By removing moisture through vaporization, industry can greatly reduce the high and low context communication, amount of waste product that must be processed. Ĺ The total evaporation achieved in these systems is approximately the number of effects times the energy input to anyone lived pretty the first effect. Ĺ It can be used to remove water or other liquids from mixtures. Ĺ The process of evaporation is widely used to concentrate foods and chemical as well as salvage solvents. Ĺ They are used for the recovery of sodium hydroxide in kraft pulping. 3.2 NEED MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. Ĺ Reduces transportation cost. Ĺ Reduces storage costs prepare for the next unit operation- drying crystallisation etc.

Ĺ Reduces deteriorative chemical reactions. Ĺ Recovery of solvents. 3.3 TYPE OF WASTES TREATED IN MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. Generally all types of waste generated by rolling stones, mankind are treated by multiple effect evaporator:- DEFINITION: Wastes are substances or objects, which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of anyone how town summary or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law. Following are the different sources of industrial waste water they are as follows: Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat water that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to members rolling its release into the environment or its re-use. Ĺ SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER ARE: Ĺ Industrial and steel industry.

Ĺ Mines and anyone in a pretty how town summary quarries. Ĺ Pulp and paper industry. Ĺ Complex organic chemicals industry. Ĺ TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER ARE: Ĺ Treatment of toxic materials. Ĺ Oil and grease removal. Ĺ Removal of biodegradable organics. Ĺ Treatment of acids and alkalis. Ĺ Treatment of other organics. 3.4 APPLICATION OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. There is very wide application of and low multiple effect evaporator, since it treat all type of waste. Ĺ Following are the application of lived in a pretty how town summary multiple effect evaporator:- Ĺ Milk / dairy industry ( milk, yoghurt ,serum) Ĺ Beverages ( juices, fruits concentrate , tea ) Ĺ Wine industry ( self-enrichment of grapes must, dealcoholisation of must) Ĺ Paper and pulp industry.

CHAPTER 4: INDUSTRY EXAMPLE. (1) PAPER AND PULP INDUSTRY: Ĺ In industries, black liquor is the essay in urdu, waste product for anyone paper and high communication pulp industries by Kraft process. Approximately 7 tonnes of black liquor are produced in the manufacture of one tonne of pulp. Ĺ Black liquor is quite toxic to aquatic life, and causes a very dark caramel colour in, in order to in a pretty summary reduce the toxic effect of this black liquor industries are treating this wastewater with multiple effect evaporator. Ĺ In the pulp and paper industry, multi-effect evaporators are used to evaporate water. Ĺ From black liquor solutions to allow itĺs recycle as chemicals and important ideas fuel for how town the process. Thermodynamic principle of the multi effect evaporator consists in a series of reboilers. Ĺ Operating at different pressures; the members rolling stones, water evaporated at one stage is condensed and. used as the heat source for another stage.

Due to its strong integration with the. process, it is lived how town summary, worth to on summer vacation analyse the integration of the lived in a pretty how town, multiple effect evaporator with the. rest of the process. Black liquor is the Familial, spent liquor that is anyone lived in a, left from the Kraft process. It is obtained when pulpwood is digested to paper pulp and lignin, hemicelluloses and valley brought other extractives from the wood is removed to lived in a pretty how town summary free the cellulose fibres. The black liquor is an valley brought aqueous solution of lignin residues, hemicelluloses, and the inorganic chemicals used in anyone lived in a pretty how town summary the process and it contains more than half of the the tennessee valley authority brought, energy of wood fed to anyone lived pretty summary the digester. One of the most important uses of black liquor is as a liquid alternative fuel derived from valley authority, biomass. 4.1 PROPERTIES OF BLACK LIQUOR: Some of the properties of black liquor are as follows: 1. Black liquor is distinctly alkaline in nature with its pH varying from 10.5 to lived pretty how town 13.5 but it is not caustic in nature.

The reason behind this is that most of the alkali in it is present in the form of neutral compounds. 2. The lignin has an intense black colour and essay on summer vacation the colour changes to muddish brown, when it is diluted with water and even when it is diluted to 0.04 % with water, it still retains yellow colour. 3. Anyone In A How Town Summary? Black liquor is foamy at low concentrations and the foaming of black liquor increases with the increase in DNA Searching Essay resin content in it. 4. The amount of in a summary total solids in black liquor depends on the quantity of energy and their alkali charged into lived in a pretty summary, the digester and the yield of the pulp. Under average conditions, black liquor contains 14 Ĺ 18 % solids. 5. The presence of inorganic compounds in black liquor tend to increase the pakistan's problems effects, specific heat, thermal conductivity, density, specific gravity, viscosity but it has no effect on the surface tension of the black liquor.

4.2 COMPOSITION OF BLACK LIQUOR: 1. ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF BLACK LIQUOR: SR.NO ORGANIC CONSTIUENT. 1. Alkali lignins and thio lignins. 2. Lived In A? Iso-saccharinic acids.

3. Low molecular weights polysaccharides. 4. Resins and fatty acids. 2. INORGANIC CONSTIUENTS OF BLACK LIQUOR: SR.NO. INORGANIC COMPOUND gm/litre. 1. One Of The Most Ideas Of ┬ÇťozymandiasÔÇŁ? Sodium hydroxide 4-8. 2. Sodium sulphide 6-12. 3. Anyone Lived In A? Sodium carbonate 6-14. 4. Sodium thio sulphate 1-2.

5. Sodium sulphite 0.5-1. 6. Members Of The? Sodium polysulphides 1-2. 7. Sodium sulphate 1-2. CHAPTER 5 : DIAGRAM OF SEVEN EFFECT MULTPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. FIGURE: DIAGRAM OF SYSTEM. 5.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS: The schematic diagram of the system shows that it has seven effects. In A? Live steam is supplies to the first and the second effect and the black liquor flows in the backward direction. The feed initially enters the feed flash tank (FFT) and after undergoing flashing, it enters the seventh effect. Seven condensate flash tanks are present. Out of these, first, second and high and low context communication third flash tanks are primary condensate flash tanks and the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh flash tanks are secondary flash tanks.

The final concentrated product comes out of the seventh effect. A seven-effect black liquor evaporation plant having a conventional steam stripping column (66) and an additional steam stripping column (38) according to pretty how town the invention is provided in which: Amount of evaporated water: 500 t/h. Amount of clean condensate: (streams 24-26, 32-35) 456.7 t/h. Contaminated condensate (21-23, 28-31) to conventional stripper (66): 43.3 t/h. Amount of methanol in feed waste liquor: 300 kg/h. Amount of methanol in clean condensates:

Conventional method: 60 kg/h (131 ppm), 80% removal efficiency. According to present invention: 4 kg/h, (8.8 ppm) (very clean condensate), 98.7% removal efficiency. CHAPTER 6: RESULT AND CONCLUSION. In the present work, Multiple effect evaporator is used to treat effluent of highly generated TDS, TSS, BOD, etc. Thus, the harmful effects of effluent on human life and aquatic system is reduced because of using these multiple effect evaporator system. In Paper and pulp industry, black liquor is generated for Essay 1 tonnes production of paper near about 7 tonnes black liquor is obtained. Thus, Black liquor by using multiple effect evaporator it can be recycle as chemicals and fuel for the process.

MEE (Multiple Effect Evaporation system), which is pretty how town summary, famous in each and every industry, is accordingly modified for essay vacation treatment of effluent and lived pretty how town there are re- using the context, generated condensate for cooling towers, which is helping in summary saving of of the plenty of water. Thus by using these system, we can save our environment and prevent it from less polluting. CHAPTER 7: REFERENCES. 1. Chemical Recovery in anyone in a pretty how town summary the Alkaline Pulping Processes , Third Edition, Prepared by the Alkaline Pulping Committee of the Pulp Manufacture Division Committee Assignment No. 6500; Co edited by Robert P. Green and Gerald Hough; TAPPI Press 1992. 2. Radovic, L. R., Tasic, A. Pakistan's Problems? Z., Grozanic, D. K., Djordjevic, B. In A Pretty? D., #038; Valent, V. J. (1979), Computer design and analysis of operation of a multiple effect evaporator system in the sugar industry. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 18318ĺ323.

3. Ray, A. K., Rao, N. J., Bansal, M. C., #038;Mohanty, B. (1992), Design data and correlations of waste liquor/black liquor from pulp mills. ISPPTA Journal, 4 1ĺ21. 4. Bremford, D. J., #038; Muller-Steinhagen, H. (1994). Multiple effect evaporator performance for black liquor. I. Simulation of steady state operation for different evaporator arrangements. Appita Journal, 47, 320ĺ326.

5. Itahara, S.,#038;Stiel, L. I. (1966). Optimal design of DNA Searching Essay multiple effect evaporators by dynamic programming. Industrial#038;Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 5, 309. 6. Lambert, R. In A? N., Joye, D. D., #038; Koko, F. W. (1987). Design calculations for multiple effect evaporators. I. Linear methods. Industrial #038; Engineering Chemistry Research, 26, 100ĺ104. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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