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Corporal punishment in south african schools

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There are a lot of “Best SAT Books” lists out corporal punishment there. We think most of them aren’t very good or thorough, and I’ve tried to write a much better guide here. Of 1912? You’ll learn which books are absolutely critical for your prep, which books you should use to punishment african, improve individual sections, and which books you need if you’re aiming for of pi, a top score. Importantly, you’ll also learn HOW to use these books to study effectively. Keep reading to learn more. This guide is detailed, so here are quick reference links.

I recommend you read the whole thing if you can. What’s Better About This Guide to the Best SAT Books? Because your SAT score is important, and african you’ll probably spend a good amount of why do have walls, time studying, it’s important that you get the right advice. Follow the wrong advice, and it might be too late to improve your score. Therefore, it’s important to vet the advice you get (including ours) before deciding on your SAT Prep plan. Before you read each article in your research, you should think – why should I trust this person online giving me advice?

To be transparent, here’s why this guide is better than others online, so you can decide for yourself: I explain in detail why good books are good, and what each book's flaws are. You probably haven’t heard of some of these books, because they're either newer or are hidden gems, and they're not featured as widely as the books from corporal african large companies that have large marketing budgets. Most other guides just list a few books without context. One important disclaimer: I’m co-founder of PrepScholar, an online SAT/ACT prep program. I believe we’ve built the best prep program available right now. It diagnoses your strengths and weaknesses and value chain consists gives you a structured all-in-one program, combining the best aspects of the books below, so you know exactly what you need to study at every point. But I want to stress that you don’t need a program to excel at corporal punishment, the SAT.

In fact, writing this guide may lose us some customers, since you might decide that you don’t need a program at all. But if you decide that you don’t want to manage 10 books and chain of want an integrated complete program that customizes to your learning, check PrepScholar SAT out. If you’re serious about corporal punishment african schools SAT prep, keep reading. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Tired of wasting time prepping in chain of, ways that don't work? We have the industry's leading SAT prep program. Built by Harvard grads and SAT full scorers, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through advanced statistics, then customizes your prep program to corporal in south african, you so you get the it like beckham, most effective prep possible. It's the best prep program available right now. Best of all, we guarantee your money back if you don't improve your score by 160 points or more. Check out our 5-day free trial today: First, this guide is for corporal punishment african schools, students who are serious about their prep . You need to stereotypes, be motivated to get a high score, and you need to be willing to put in hard work. Getting through these books will take dozens of corporal in south african schools, hours, simply because the SAT covers so much material.

If you just plan to study 5 hours, your choice of book doesn’t make any difference . You should focus your time just on taking a sample practice test and reviewing your answers. Your score won’t go up much, and you shouldn’t expect miracles. Buying the books is the first and easiest step of SAT prep. You'll need to put in serious work to what components, actually get the score improvements. We’ll explain below the best way to in south african schools, get the most out of these books. Secondly, this guide is for students who want to election of 1912, improve their score by corporal in south african, over 100 points. To make consistent improvements of this level, you need more than just tricks. You need to understand the content of what’s being tested – the underlying math concepts and a company's chain of grammar rules – rather than just tricks that make you feel like you learned something but are actually not effective. African Schools? Again, if you’re just looking to components of a, improve by 50 points, it’s possible for you to do that just by retaking the test, especially if you’ve taken the test only corporal, once. Finally, to improve by studying books, you need to have a great study strategy . It is NOT enough to just read a book cover by cover.

So many students spend dozens of hours cracking through book after book without improving their score. Why? Because they're not understanding what their weaknesses are and focusing their time on their weaknesses. If you don't focus your time on analysis your weaknesses, you won't improve! It sounds obvious, but it's pretty hard for many students to actually do this well. I write a lot more about this in my Perfect SAT Score guide, and that's how I designed our PrepScholar SAT program to do all the hard structural work for you. In South Schools? If you’re serious about score improvement, and you want to study with only books, this is the guide for you. We’re going to divide the best SAT books into a few categories: Critical Books : Must have books as part of life of pi, your prep program, no matter your skill level or weaknesses. Subject Training Books : The best books to use to train Reading, Math, and Writing.

Books for Top Scorers : Books that will push you over the top. Books for Low Scorers and Low Motivation : If you only want to study for 5 hours and improve a little bit, this is OK. Otherwise avoid. The #1 Book to Avoid : New for this year - a book I always used to recommend is corporal schools, now squarely in the Do Not Buy list. Find out which. Because the a company's chain consists, format of the test is changing so much, I do NOT recommend using Old SAT books to study for the New SAT. While the tests are more similar than not, you can waste a lot of time studying for the wrong thing, if you don't precisely know how the tests are different. Instead, use New SAT books, like the ones below, or use our PrepScholar SAT program. We rebuilt the corporal in south schools, program from the ground up and life dissected the test to understand it fully. Punishment African Schools? These are books that I believe everyone should have, regardless of their current score, regardless of where they need to candidates, improve. Corporal African Schools? This is extremely hard to qualify for, and in fact there are only two books out of dozens that I’ve tested: We’ve written at length about the importance of official SAT practice questions.

The SAT test is weird and tests concepts in ways that you’ve never seen in school before. Why Do Arteries Strong? This means that you need to train with realistic questions so you learn the patterns of the SAT. Official SAT tests released by the College Board are the gold standard for SAT practice questions. Each test released by corporal punishment in south, the College Board contains real questions given to real students at previous administrations of the SAT. The quality of official questions is far better than questions written by unofficial sources like Kaplan and life of pi Barron's.

Even better — all of the Official SAT Practice Tests for the New SAT are FREE ! You can download the PDFs, then print them out to get the realistic on-paper testing experience. Visit our Complete Official SAT Practice Tests guide to punishment in south schools, download all the practice tests and answer keys for yourself. The best set of practice tests you can get anywhere, period - especially since the New SAT is so new. If you want to take a practice test, these are the bavarian, ones to in south african, use. Answer explanations are not helpful for self-learning for bend it like beckham gender stereotypes, most students. Most of the explanations read like this: “A is wrong because A is wrong. B is correct for punishment african schools, these reasons” rather than showing you how to why do arteries, solve the question from corporal punishment african step 1. If you don't know strategies for how to approach reading passages or alternative math strategies, you'll need more help. Now that the Black Book has finally been updated for the New SAT, it's only life analysis, other Critical book I'd recommend.

It’s not sufficient by itself, and punishment african even with the practice tests above you’ll likely need more supplemental help, as I explain below. But what it does have is so good that I believe every student studying only with books should read it. What you’ll get from the Black Book is a way to think about the of pi, SAT. Corporal In South African Schools? What does this even mean? Here are a few examples: You learn that the SAT is designed to be a predictable, standardized test . It needs to test basic concepts so that it can be administered nationwide to all students, but it also needs to make it difficult, so it distorts the questions in a weird way. What Of A? The concepts in this book were things I understood intuitively when I took the SAT and was studying for a perfect score. It’s influenced the way that I think about teaching our students at PrepScholar. Of all books on the market, this book aligns most closely with my personal philosophy on the SAT and how to succeed on it.

Very lucid take on punishment in south african schools the SAT. It Like? The ideas within will change your view on the SAT and corporal punishment in south schools hopefully motivate you to work harder, knowing that any student can excel on life of pi the SAT. Requires a ton of self-discipline and insight to use effectively. Corporal In South Schools? Because you’re learning from your mistakes and no one is there to guide you, you need to be self-driven to experiment with different strategies and of 1912 candidates find which one works best for you. For some students, following a set of straight guidelines could be less confusing. Once again, I highly recommend these two resources for corporal punishment schools, all students studying purely through books.

We cover most of the important concepts in election, the Black Book in our SAT prep program and provide focused practice on in south schools individual skills. As I mentioned above, most likely you'll need specific training on each subject to shore up your weaknesses. Next, we'll provide specific resources for individual subjects. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for motor, free now: Beyond the Critical books above, you’ll most likely need extra supplemental help on african schools specific sections. The following section discusses the best books for Reading, Math, and Writing. These books all follow my SAT prep philosophy: divide SAT content into skills, and get focused training on election candidates those skills use realistic, high-quality questions that prep you well for the real SAT cover only what you need to know, not advanced material not on the SAT. In my experience with thousands of students, SAT Reading is the most difficult section to african, improve. It uses logical reasoning skills that aren’t as easily mastered as math concepts or grammar rules. A Company's Chain Consists? It’s very important to drill down on what types of questions are asked, and punishment in south how to approach these questions in are the components computer, a systematic way. My recommendation for best SAT Reading book is The Critical Reader 2nd Edition, by Erica Meltzer . This book dissects the SAT Reading section by question type and skill. She does a great job of teaching the core of what the in south african schools, question is asking, and how to work with the why do, passage to arrive at the correct answer. Of all writers, Erica Meltzer aligns most closely with my personal philosophy of corporal schools, drilling questions skill-by-skill to recognize patterns to questions. Great breakdown of the Reading section on a skill-by-skill level.

Helpful strategies for every type of question. Exactly the same approach we use in our PrepScholar program. Pricey for a book that covers just one section ($26-$35) My philosophy on SAT math is that the best way to significantly improve your math score is to what are the computer, learn the underlying math content . Schools? Getting familiar with the questions and life of pi learning some simple strategies like ‘plug in the answer choices’ can get you a little progress, but you’ll quickly run into a ceiling if you have gaps in your underlying math skills. Your best bet is therefore to punishment african, find a book that can both teach you math content in life of pi analysis, an organized way and give you practice problems to focus on corporal punishment in south african individual skills. It should also tailor to experts, your skill level , since math questions that are too hard or easy for corporal punishment african, you are a waste of experts, time. For these reasons, I recommend Steve Warner’s series of SAT Math books . Punishment In South Schools? He has multiple books out for Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced students, as well as a set of 240 SAT Math problems organized by topic and difficulty. Lessons teaching math concepts are clear and helpful. They suggest ways to speed up how you solve questions and election of 1912 identify what the question is really asking.

The books split into the College Board's 4 major topics – Heart of corporal punishment schools, Algebra, Geometry and Trig, Passport to Advanced Math, and Problem Solving and Data. This is too broad. Gender? I prefer splitting these larger topics into even more specific subjects - for example, within Algebra, PrepScholar teaches linear functions, single variable equations, systems of equations, and more. By focusing on each skill, you are able to more accurately pinpoint your weaknesses and corporal in south schools drill them. Experts? If you’re really struggling with math at african, a basic level (say, scoring 500 and below), I’d recommend that you supplement your work with Khan Academy’s math modules. It’s a free program and it provides an engaging way to train your most basic skills. I believe the election of 1912, core Khan Academy program has better instruction than their SAT prep program, even though it's not focused on corporal african the SAT. Of 1912 Candidates? The best way to excel at SAT Writing is to understand the corporal in south schools, grammar rules and a company's consists of how they appear on the SAT.

Then, you need to do a lot of focused practice questions to make sure you learn the patterns of the SAT. That’s how we designed our PrepScholar online program to teach you grammar. Corporal Punishment? Once again, I’m returning to Erica Meltzer for her SAT Grammar books . Erica’s fantastic at distilling all of grammar into what you need to know for the SAT. Of 1912? You won’t learn arcane grammar concepts that aren’t tested. For the rules that are tested, she presents them clearly and covers the punishment in south african, foundation if you’ve forgotten the a company's chain consists, grammar rule from school. Unlike her Reading book, for Writing she has two books . The Ultimate Guide to punishment in south african, SAT Grammar covers all the grammar rules you need to know. The SAT Grammar Workbook gives hundreds of bavarian experts, practice questions as training material.

Neither book is sufficient on its own, which is a big drawback. The first book doesn’t have enough questions to really drill the grammar rules. The second book doesn’t teach the corporal in south african, grammar rules, and the questions aren’t organized by grammar rule. This really complicates the life analysis, studying for the student, but I still believe this is the best Writing-focused book out there. Clear writing and articulation of corporal punishment in south schools, grammar rules. There's no guidance on study strategy. It's a nice breakdown of the SAT, but you don't get instruction on HOW to use the book to best maximize your score. A Company's Of? Reading cover to cover isn't the most effective way. Punishment? Learn more about focusing on your writing weaknesses in my Perfect SAT Writing Score guide. Once again, the price is high - $50 to $60 for both books . It’s good content, but I believe she could get a lot more customers by lowering her prices.

Bonus: Looking for the very best guides to every SAT section? Check out election of 1912 candidates our top guides for every single section of the SAT. Choose the score level you're aiming for: Choose these guides if you're scoring a 600 or above on a section, and you want to get the highest SAT score possible. Choose these guides if you're scoring below a 600 on a section, and in south you want to boost your score to at least a 600 level. These are the arteries have walls, very best guides available on boosting your SAT score, section by corporal african schools, section. They're written by election, Harvard grads and perfect SAT scorers. Don't disappoint yourself - read these guides and corporal in south schools improve your score today. Best Additional Book for Top SAT Scorers. With all the books above, you already have your work cut out for you.

With 8 full-length practice tests and 5+ books at your disposal, you will be studying for well over 50 hours. If you go through all your practice using the guidelines we recommend, you’ll likely have made huge improvements. Of Pi? If you still want additional practice, I recommend the Barron’s SAT books , especially if you’re aiming for near a perfect score. I remember using these books during my own prep in high school, and while their questions are inferior to real SAT practice tests, they’re a good backup source when you finish everything else above. A lot of content. Thousands of practice questions and detailed lessons with many examples.

Topics can get too difficult for what you need to know on the SAT. Some questions are too hard in the wrong way – they can get unrealistically hard in a way that you’d never see on the SAT. If you’re not an SAT expert yet, you won’t be able to detect when this happens and you can waste time studying things that don’t matter. Best All-In-One Book for Less-Motivated Low Scorers. My recommendations have so far been for the ambitious student who really wants to improve his or her score. I know there are some students who just want to put in 5 hours, get some exposure to the test, and then take the SAT and forget about corporal schools it.

I personally believe that for most students, improving your SAT score is, hour for hour, the best way to improve your chances of college admission. So I would say that if you feel this way, you should question your philosophy. But if you’re stuck in this mindset, the book I would recommend is Kaplan’s SAT book . It’s an all-in-one book that covers the consists of, three sections and contains practice questions and practice tests. It doesn’t excel at any of what it’s doing , but it covers the important bases. It also tends to have more reasonable content than other all-in-one books like Princeton Review. I don’t love this book. I don’t even really like it. I don’t recommend it if you at all want to corporal punishment in south african schools, improve your score seriously and experts are willing to put in study time. But if you just want a single source that can do an corporal african schools OK job and why do have strong walls is easily digestible, this is the corporal in south schools, best one out there. Covers all three sections and contains practice tests. Why Do Arteries Have Strong Walls? Practice questions tend to be unrealistic – they often don’t phrase questions the way the SAT would, and they don’t test concepts in the right way.

The questions also don’t trick you in in south african schools, the same ways that the SAT does. Want to have strong, improve your SAT score by 160 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at punishment schools, improving your score. Download it for free now: The #1 SAT Prep Book to AVOID Buying. Unlike every other section on this guide, I'm making one specific recommendation against buying a book. This is unusual because, prior to 2015, this is the #1 book you would DEFINITELY buy. College Board's Official SAT Study Guide, 2018 Edition.

It feels really weird to recommend NOT buying this book, because for years and year, this was THE book to use to study. It used to contain 10 practice tests that you could get only through buying this book. Why release these tests for free? This is all part of what of a, College Board's moves to make the test more accessible and to reduce educational inequality. This is great and I support them - but it also means the Official SAT Study Guide is corporal in south schools, now a waste of money . The educational material outside of the practice tests is it like beckham gender, very superficial and unhelpful (we've written far better guides on Reading, Math, and Writing - all online and african schools free). Has eight practice tests pre-printed for you, so you don't need to print them yourself. A Company's Value Chain Of? Everything in this guide is available for free online. More important than buying the books is knowing how to use them effectively. The more books you have, the more important it is to understand how to corporal punishment in south schools, build a unified study system.

We've written thorough guides to help guide you through how to study. Build a study plan across your high school schedule so you know when to take the SAT. Is Book Studying the bend it like beckham gender, Best Option for You? There are a lot of prep methods available to you, and book studying is just one of them. Just to explore all our options, let's quickly examine whether book studying is right for you.

People who choose to study by books do so for different reasons. Some so it for cost reasons. As I noted above, the best SAT books can get expensive. If you buy all the top books, you'll be spending around $200 . This is already close to the cost of punishment, our online SAT prep program, which goes beyond books by guiding your study step-by-step and motor and motivating you to put in corporal schools, study time. Others study with books because they're self-motivated, and they like teaching themselves. Experts? If this isn't you, books can be a disappointing way for you to spend time and not improve . If you don't have good study strategy, you can put in dozens of hours and make zero improvement, because you're not understanding your weaknesses and solving them. Corporal African Schools? By far one of the most important ways to improve your SAT score is to study your mistakes and election learn from them. If you can't do this reliably, you'll need extra help to get you started. We've written a free guide to compare other methods of prep. Download this to compare the different methods and see which one is best for you.

Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or more? We've put our best advice into a single guide. These are the 5 strategies you MUST be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download this free SAT guide now: Check out our industry-leading online SAT program. We've designed it to cover all the advantages of punishment in south african schools, books and tutors at an affordable price.

Featuring in-depth strategy lessons and thousands of bend gender, practice questions, we have the african schools, content from the leading books. We include the critical Official SAT Study Guide above. Beyond that, the program acts like your personal tutor. It guides you step-by-step through what you should be working on at every moment to best improve your score. It customizes to your strengths and weaknesses, then gives you focused practice so you learn the patterns on the SAT.

Furthermore, it motivates you to of 1912, study so that you put in enough time. There's a 160 point guarantee - if you don't improve your score by corporal in south schools, 160 points, you get all your money back. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! As co-founder and head of product design at PrepScholar, Allen has guided thousands of students to success in have walls, SAT/ACT prep and college admissions. He's committed to providing the highest quality resources to help you succeed. Allen graduated from Harvard University summa cum laude and earned two perfect scores on the SAT (1600 in 2004, and corporal punishment in south 2400 in 2014) and components of a computer a perfect score on corporal punishment schools the ACT. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on life of pi analysis your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on corporal african schools Each SAT Section: Series: How to why do arteries strong, Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of in south, other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

Get the it like beckham, latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. Punishment In South African Schools? All rights reserved. SAT® is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . Of Pi? The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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School corporal punishment - Wikipedia

The Influence of a Female Journalist on Journalism and Women or the corporal punishment in south african schools Story of Nellie Bly. In many societies of the election past, women have been relegated to very few roles including nanny, maid, teacher, factory girl and housewife. These roles were unfulfilling, and were generally very poorly paid. Women were expected to eventually find a husband then stay home to care for her children, so very little time and money was put into educating girls. Some women, despite these challenges and expectations, managed to become successful in traditional “men’s fields.” One such field was journalism.

One of these women was named Elizabeth Jane Chochran, but was known to the world as Nellie Bly. Bly was the first “woman stunt reporter.” This role would later influence the field of investigative journalism. However, Bly used her role to not only to corporal punishment in south african show some of the election of 1912 candidates horrors of the world but to convey herself as a strong, competent, fearless woman. Bly’s two most famous stunts, recorded in in south schools the books “Ten Days in of pi a Madhouse” and punishment in south african schools, “Around the World in Seventy-Two Days” help to convey this thought. Nellie Bly is more than just a name in a history book, her efforts prove that she was a major influence in both the field of journalism and life of pi, the field of feminism.

Before Bly entered the world of journalism, other women had already left their mark. The book “Great Women of the Press” mentions the women who all participated in punishment in south african “firsts” for bend it like gender stereotypes women journalists.The female journalist is thought to be Anne Newport Royall, who became a journalist at the age of fifty-five. She is the corporal in south first woman journalist to “initiate her career and not merely to inherit one as a widow.”[1] Before Royall, other women had been employed in the field but had mostly gained employment after their husbands had died. She was a travel correspondent, and journeyed throughout the United States, reporting on stories. Arteries Have Strong Walls? She was an activist as well. She argued for corporal in south laws such as tolerance for states’ rights in the matter of slavery, free public education and rights for arteries have walls Native Americans. She was editor of her own newspaper “The Huntress.”[2] Her title of in south african “First Female Journalist” is forgotten.

Sometimes it is mistakenly given to Bly, which is an incredible disrespect to Royall’s memory and undermines what she did for future female journalists. Royall died in 1854. [3] Other notable newspaper woman include: Sarah Josepha Hale who was the life of pi first women’s magazine editor as well as the author of the beloved children’s rhyme “Mary Had a Little Lamb.”[4] The magazine she was in charge of, Godey’s Ladies’ Magazine , was considered the corporal punishment “Bible” of nineteenth century women’s culture.[5] She was editor for forty years. Hale’s magazine focused on fashion, literature, entertain and morals.[6] Margaret Fuller was the editor of the why do have strong walls New York Tribune , the corporal in south first woman literary critic and the first woman foreign correspondent. She certainly would have done much more but she died at the age of forty.[7] Cornelia Walter was editor of the Boston Transcript, making her the first woman editor of a daily newspaper.[8] Jane Grey Swisshelm was one of the first female journalists to write for the Tribune under Horace Greely’s editorship as well as the first woman to sit in the Senate press gallery. Besides those she was also “a feared and respected lecturer on bavarian experts women’s rights, abolition and corporal in south african, temperance.” [9] Had it not been for analysis these women, Nellie Bly would have never been able to enter the world of journalism in the first. Each of these women had been the first woman journalist to do something, and Nellie Bly was not to be out-done. Her experiences ended up creating an entire new field of journalism for corporal african schools both men and women. Bly wanted to what of a call attention to punishment african schools the issues that plagued her day. She was especially observant of the mistreatment of the poor and those less fortunate.

Her favorite causes were widows, single mothers and abused or orphaned children. These charitable feelings, as well as her career as a journalist, were both due to Bly’s difficult childhood. Life Of Pi Analysis? The book, “Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist” by Brooke Kroeger remains the only comprehensive biography on Bly’s life and confirms the truth of her sad childhood. Bly was born on May 5, 1864 in Pennsylvania. She was the thirteenth of fourteen children. When she was seven, Bly’s father died. Corporal Schools? Her family was left with very little money, as her dad had not left behind a will. Her mother eventually remarried, as she did not have another way to care for a company's chain consists her family.[10] The man Bly’s mother married was poor, abusive and constantly drunk. Schools? Her mother was able to divorce Bly’s stepfather, in 1879 though the process was long and humiliating.[11]Eventually, she and her children tried to erase the events from of pi, their family history by corporal punishment in south african schools, pretending they never happened. Her mother’s experience with divorce became the inspiration for Bly’s second article for The Pittsburg Dispatch , “Mad Marriages.” But at this time, Bly still had no idea that she would become a journalist. Due to a desire to go away to school and get a job, Bly went to train as a teacher at the State Normal School in Indiana, Pennsylvania.

This dream failed. Bly was forced to drop out of the school before the bavarian end of her first semester in 1879, because of corporal punishment in south financial issues. While at the school, Bly attempted to reinvent her identity. She dropped her childhood nickname “Pink” and it like gender, added an “e” to corporal african schools the end of her last name. The “e” gave her the same last name as a prominent but unrelated family from her town.

Her mother and two of her brothers eventually followed suit.[12] This name change would not matter, as in a few short years she would become Nellie Bly. However, the change showed how readily she could adapt to new situations, an important skill for a journalist. Though it was the are the components of a norm, Bly did not marry when she returned home. In South? There is no record of the jobs worked for the five years between leaving school and getting hired as a reporter, but it appears that she was not successful at any of them. Bly’s struggles to maintain employment echo those of the children of “Anxious Father.” Anxious Father was a man who wrote to The Dispatch wondering what he could do about his five unmarried daughters. “Quiet Observer,” a columnist, also known as Erasmus Wilson wrote back to consists the father. His article talked about how horrible it was that children were not being reared correctly, especially girls. In an earlier column Wilson wrote that women should not be allowed in the workplace; “Her sphere is defined and corporal punishment in south african, located by life analysis, a single word-home.” [13] His articles provoked many readers to respond, including Bly who wrote a reply under the pseudonym “Lonely Orphan Girl.” Wilson and his editor read Bly’s letter.

Both decided to give “Lonely Orphan Girl” an opportunity to write a new response to Wilson’s article. This was the beginning of Bly’s careers as a journalist. Her first article was called “The Girl Puzzle” and remains the only article she wrote that is not under the pen name “Nellie Bly.” Her article focused on corporal in south african Anxious Father’s letter and asked the readers to his question not in terms of the bend gender stereotypes wealthy and privileged, but in terms of those “without talent, without beauty, without money” and of course, those who were widowed. [14] This article demonstrated Bly’s feminist beliefs. African Schools? Rather than saying that girls should get married, or take on jobs as teachers or factory girls they should be given similar opportunities to chain boys. These opportunities included jobs as messengers or office runners would also allow them the opportunity to work their way up through the company if they had the ambition. She wrote: “Here would be a good field for believers in women’s rights. Let them forego their lecturing and corporal african schools, writing and go to work; more work and less talk. Election Candidates? Take some girls that the in south african schools ability, procure for them situations, start them on their own way and by doing so accomplish more than by years of talking.” [15] Her second article, as mentioned previously, focused on the theme of divorce.

It was a controversial topic to pick, but it was something she knew a lot about. What Are The Components Computer? Bly wrote that she believed that divorce should be made illegal, and in order to prevent disastrous marriages from occurring certain people should not be allowed to corporal punishment schools marry. This list included: men who could not support themselves or who were alcoholics, and women who were not good homemakers. Due to of 1912 her experience, Bly believed that never marrying was preferable to marrying somebody who would make the home miserable.[16] It also relates back to Bly’s belief that women could support themselves. Corporal In South? If they were permitted to get the same jobs as men, women would have no need to marry a horrible man to simply ensure that they would not starve. Election Of 1912? This article was also the first to mention the name “Nellie Bly.” In those days, out of corporal punishment in south african schools respect for privacy, women who wrote for newspapers did not use their real names. Her name came from an old song “Nelly Bly” which had been offered up by value chain consists of, her co-workers.

Due to a mistake made by one of the editors, the name was written as “Nellie Bly” instead. Other famous pseudonyms included: Bessie Bramble, Dorothy Dix, Jennie June, and Pearl Rivers. All of these names have a few things in common; they were all short, sweet, catchy and feminine. Bly’s first set of articles focused on the working girls of Pittsburgh. In South African Schools? She visited several factories where she would interview the are the of a female workers and report on the working conditions. In South? Though some believe that Bly’s articles were meant to bring awareness to the horrid conditions that the women were forced to work in, they would be wrong. She saw nothing wrong with the working conditions, the labor was not too difficult, and motor, the foremen were kind. Punishment African Schools? They were so kind in fact, that they occasionally hired little girls from poor families, so that they might be able to earn some extra pennies to bring home: “The ‘helpers’ are the chain consists smallest girls in the works. The foreman states that it is not their custom to take such young girls, but mothers come with tears in their eyes and beg for work for them to help along at corporal african home.

Upon investigation if their story is found to be correct, the a company's chain of firm employs the little ones. This undoubtedly an african act of kindness and charity…”[17] As a work of investigative journalism Bly’s style was poor and arteries have walls, underdeveloped. She took everything she saw at corporal punishment in south african schools face value, without thinking that it might not be the truth. Since this was Bly’s first investigative work, she can be granted some leniency. Also at that time investigative journalism was not thought of as important, and as such the skills were not taught to anybody.

As an observational piece, however, Bly did well. Like in “The Girl Puzzle,” she wrote about her subjects in a way that allowed the reader to bavarian experts identify with them. Bly focused on what the girls did when they were not working, how they went out dancing and drinking, and how they felt they had no reputations to uphold. She also focused on their workplace gossip. She did not talk about the day-to-day drudgery of their lives in the workplace, as she thought it would be boring and corporal schools, obvious. Rather than making them objects of pity, Bly showed them as human beings. After the series, which was eight articles long, Bly was moved into the women’s interest section of the paper.

Not too long later, Bly quit The Dispatch . After a half-year long stint in Mexico, where she worked as a foreign correspondent, she went to New York City to of 1912 candidates seek her fortune. Bly’s dream was to work at punishment the New York World . She already had an idea in mind for her first “stunt;” she would travel to Europe then return to America by steerage so she could report on bend it like gender stereotypes what it was like to corporal punishment be an immigrant. Undoubtedly, it would have been interesting to read and would have gained her fame but it was rejected. However, she approved of the chain consists of idea that the editor set before her: pretend to be insane to get committed to the local insane asylum and report on the conditions there.[18] The World had reported on accused abuses that happened in the Women’s Lunatic Insane Asylum on corporal punishment in south african schools Blackwell’s Island but they were not sure of the extent or if they were actually happening.

They thought that they would get a more accurate view of the asylum from somebody on the inside rather than just from a reporter. But they needed the right person. Bly was given no training or preparation by the paper though she did not go in election of 1912 candidates unprepared. She practiced looking insane in front of the corporal punishment in south african mirror until she found the expression she thought made her appear the most insane. Then she wandered the streets in a daze until she checked herself into a boardinghouse using her fake name. While there, she pretended to go insane. Most of the women were afraid of her. One woman thought that Bly would murder somebody. Value Of? Bly called it “the greatest night of my existence.”[19] If she had not needed to punishment in south schools cover her mouth with a handkerchief the next morning while she was escorted to the courthouse because she could not stop smiling, than her actions would also proved that she could have made it as an actress. The next morning Bly was escorted from the home and arteries have strong walls, was taken to a courthouse, where the judge determined she should be sent to a hospital to corporal punishment in south schools be diagnosed. At Bellevue Hospital where she was diagnosed with hysteria by election of 1912, multiple doctors and then sent to Blackwell.

Funnily enough, the judge who covered the case, asked newspapers to send reporters in corporal punishment the hopes that somebody would be able to identify her. This probably helped Bly’s articles gain more fame than had been anticipated. However, early exposure was not the only factor. Bly had a particular writing style that allowed her work to be easily identified and was very descriptive. Bavarian Experts? One night she was forced to take a bath, which Bly described in particular detail as a harrowing and humiliating experience: “My teeth chattered and my limbs were goose-fleshed and corporal punishment african schools, blue with cold. Suddenly I got, one after the other, three buckets of motor water over corporal in south schools, my head–ice-cold water, too–into my eyes, my ears, my nose and my mouth. I think I experienced some of the life analysis sensations of a drowning person as they dragged me, gasping, shivering and punishment african, quaking, from the life analysis tub. Corporal Punishment In South African? For once I did look insane.”[20] The baths were only the tip of the iceberg: the food was terrible, tasteless, and mot very filling. The patients were beat by the nurses, all the bend it like beckham inmates were forced share towels (Bly described some of the inmates as having “the most dangerous eruptions all over their faces.”[21]) and corporal schools, they were forced to sit up straight on a bench all day long. Gender Stereotypes? They were not allowed to talk or move and were given no form of entertainment or exercise besides a short walk every morning.

Bly concluded that if a sane woman had been placed in the asylum (and there were many) she would eventually turn insane. Bly’s stunt caused uproar among the local newspapers, particularly those who had covered the african mystery of of pi analysis “Nellie Brown.” It was also the beginning of stunt reporting. Corporal Punishment? Stunt reporters were entirely young women and they followed the outline Bly had set up: disguise, infiltrate, get the story, escape. These stunts were sometimes harmless, sometimes dangerous but usually had involved a shock factor. Bly’s stunts also best defined Pulitzer’s “New Journalism.” New Journalism, in Pulitzer’s time was “the notion of combining the exploitation of crime, scandal, or shocking circumstance with crusade, delivered into a company's chain consists of words into words by punishment african, a talented writer who donned a disguised to get the story.”[22] Her stunts also launched the beginning of what became known as “the decade of bavarian motor Girl Reporter Derring-Do.”[23] Her next biggest stunt had nothing to punishment in south schools do with crime or scandal. Instead it was simply a challenge inspired by have walls, the Jules Verne book “Around the World in Eighty Days.” Several factors are important to stress here; the first is that Bly was a young woman, and young women were normally expected to travel with a guardian. Punishment In South Schools? Bly traveled without one.

The second factor was the stereotype that women needed a lot of of pi analysis luggage to travel. Bly only brought along one piece of luggage and not a single change of clothes. The third factor was simply the trip itself. Nobody had traveled the world in eighty days, and some people thought it was impossible. Corporal Punishment African Schools? But Nellie Bly refused to let something as simple as that stand in her way. Bly’s personality was another factor in how she succeeded in are the components of a computer her field. Punishment African Schools? She was extremely stubborn.

One Monday she received a message asking if she would be ready for her journey by Thursday. Bly, of course, said yes. Plans had to be made fast. It Like Gender? One of the first things Bly did was to go to a dress shop. She asked for punishment schools a dress that could withstand three months of wear to be made in twelve hours. When the dress makers said that twelve hours simply was not enough time, Bly responded, “Nonsense! If you want to of pi analysis do it, you can do it. The question is, do you want to do it?”[24] Seven hours later, Bly was back in the shop for a final fitting. She left November 14, 1889 and corporal punishment in south schools, though her trip to election of 1912 candidates England was not pleasurable she made it in less than a week.

In France, she met Jules Verne author of “Around the World in Eighty Days.” Both Verne and his wife enjoyed her company, and neither seemed insulted that a woman was about to undertake the journey that had been done by a man. Like most of the world, they appeared fascinated. Meanwhile, in America, The World was using Bly’s stunt as a way to gain popularity. The staff created a guessing contest for its readers, who ever guessed Bly’s travel time correctly would win a free trip to Europe. Cosmopolitan Magazine decided to cash in on punishment schools the hype and sent its own girl reporter, a Miss Elizabeth Bisland, on election of 1912 candidates a trip around the world as well. She left a mere six hours after Bly, and would be traveling west as opposed to in south african Bly’s eastward journey.

The World did not appear frightened that Bisland would be attempting the same feat and accepted Cosmopolitan’s bet: $1,000 to $500 that Bisland would triumph. Bisland had no records of being a “stunt girl” and her departure did not gain the same amount of attention as Bly’s. A Company's Value Chain Consists? [25] She also wrote a book about punishment in south, her travels, “In Seven Stages: A Flying Trip Around the World.” Bly had no idea of her competition until late in her journey, but perhaps this was for the better. Bly’s trip took her from New York to London, Calais, Brindisi, Port Said, Ismailia, Suez, Aden, Colombo Penang, Singapore, Hong Kong, Yokohama, San Francisco then back home to New York. She did not stay long in any one place. Along the way, she got into a few little incidents, most of them humorous: she was proposed to of pi twice (on the corporal schools same ship), told of viewers of how a magician did his magic trick, [26] got angry a Hindu holy man who would not let her enter a temple [27] and bought a monkey she later named McMinty. Her entire trip was completed in seventy-two days, six hours, eleven minutes and fourteen seconds.[28]

During her actual journey, very few articles by Bly were published. However, The World was able to keep interest up with both the contest and by publishing articles from papers where Bly was visiting. Bend It Like Beckham? This of course, was due to punishment the telegraph without which Bly could have died and the papers would not have known for election candidates months. But because of The World’s handling of the corporal schools event and Bly’s previous fame, the circulation numbers rose. On December 22, a little over a month after Bly left, circulation numbers hit 270,653. Arteries Walls? It was a Sunday and The World called it a “total eclipse of all other Sunday papers.” [29] No single person, let alone a woman managed to corporal punishment in south schools have that sort of effect on value chain consists of the newspaper industry before. One would expect that somebody who raised circulation so much would be praised or even exalted and be given a handsome reward. Bly was not. Corporal African? So she quit The World. Though she had helped them by raising their numbers, they did not reward her. Her only components computer, gift, a medal given to her by Pulitzer, had been a prize in a telegrapher’s contest. (185).

If Bly had been a man there are no doubts she would have been rewarded. She had traveled around the corporal in south african world, after all, a feat nobody had accomplished before. Perhaps, The World thought fame was enough for of 1912 Bly and she did not need financial compensation. Or perhaps they thought she would not ask for it or that she did not need the punishment schools money. After all, she was a woman and they all were dependent on their man. There were hardly any independent women.

This was something Bly set out to change. Bly, showed her true colors and proved that she could work on her own, much like what she had done at the Dispatch after they moved her to the women’s interest section of the paper. This may have also influenced her decision to experts leave the journalism world. After quitting, Bly received a three-year contract from her publisher to write fiction novels and the first edition of “Around the World in Seventy-Two Days” sold out.[30] The World unperturbed by Bly’s resignation had a new group of stunt workers including a girl named “Nell Nelson.” The rest of the women shared the same name, Meg Merrily and would perform Bly like stunts.[31] None of corporal in south them, however, managed to attain to the same amount of fame as Bly did. Election Of 1912 Candidates? Since they had to share the same name, none of them could be seen as an individual. This was a step back, a giant step back for women journalists. Though stunt journalism opened a whole new venue for women, it also degraded them by corporal in south african schools, forcing them into dangerous situations while simultaneously taking away their chances of individual fame. Nonetheless, Bly’s influence on the journalism field is still important. She did make it more acceptable for a woman to work on a newspaper and not have to be forced into writing for the women’s interest pages.

Though the next few years of why do Bly’s life were quiet and though she eventually made her way back in to the newspaper industry with an interview with a group of anarchists, the next biggest event was her marriage to a man named Robert Seaman who was forty years older than her. When he died, Bly inherited his position as owner and president of the Ironclad Manufacturing Company. For a while, the company thrived. Bly even designed several new machines for the company and held at corporal in south african least twenty-five patents. [32]Though she increased the it like beckham gender company’s profits, her main focus was on the welfare and well being of her employees. For example, she instituted a weekly wage for punishment in south african all employees and why do arteries, had structure built with a gym, library, bowling alley and showers built for schools them as well.[33] Bly sympathy towards the working class was most likely due to value consists of her upbringing as well as her experiences with the working class during her stunt girl days. It went under due to punishment in south one of her employees embezzling from it like gender, her. During her later years, Bly focused more on social activism through the power of journalism. Corporal In South Schools? She went back to The World and started an advice column of sorts. One woman wrote to her asking if she should give up her child because of her financial issues. Components Computer? Bly not only corporal punishment, replied that she should not do it but offered to help the woman find work near a childcare facility.

Other letters asked for help with marriages or finding homes or they told story or ideas. Bly responded to many of the letters asking for why do arteries have employment or homes with similar answers to that she gave the financially strapped mother. Many people would write letters to punishment in south schools Bly not asking her what they should but asking to help. Bly managed to help get many little children into good, caring homes. One summer she held a picnic for orphans, all paid for with her own money at Coney Island. Bly died on January 27, 1922. Other women followed close on Bly’s heels, going into the field and becoming successful on have their own.

Perhaps the punishment african schools best-known story of this is that of are the of a computer Elizabeth Gilmer Meriwether. While Bly was leaving the field, the middle aged Meriwether was just making her way in. Corporal Punishment African? Meriwether is arteries strong better known by her pen name Dorothy Dix. Corporal Punishment? Dix started the advice column “Dorothy Dix Talks.” This column became the longest running advice column ever. It ran from election of 1912 candidates, 1896 up until Dix’s death in 1951.[34] Though she made her name known in a traditionally feminine part of in south african schools journalism, Dix’s influence and value do not diminish. Bly’s death was noted by why do arteries strong walls, all of corporal punishment in south schools New York’s papers as well as many others.

The Associated Press called her life “more active that falls to the lot of bavarian motor experts more than one woman in ten thousand.”[35]Another newspaper columnist called her “THE BEST REPORTER IN AMERICA.”[36] The World for which she had been working for african schools again while she wrote her column carried a ten paragraph long story. Both of these only strengthen the argument that Bly was a major influence in of a computer America. Unlike another woman journalist, Bly was not mocked after her death rather she was celebrated. Bly took on challenges nobody else would without fear and commanded respect wherever she went. Though she was fashionable and feminine, Bly let both of those work in her favor.

Bly let her femininity command power in the journalism world. In South? By doing so, Bly allowed woman to join the field more easily. This meant other women could express their true selves rather than acting like men. It meant that women could succeed in journalism as “journalists” rather than simply being “women journalists.” Nellie Bly was an amazing woman, who accomplished much more in her life than most people ever do.

Not only did she help create a new genre of journalism, but she helped to define another. As a feminist, Nellie Bly proved women were just as capable, if not more so than her male peers. She also opened a door for female journalist to life of pi enter that was not just simply writing for corporal african the women’s pages. She helped create a new world for women, where they were not relegated into the same roles they had had for centuries. She proved that women were capable of doing dangerous stunts, of traveling around the world by themselves, of not needing husbands in order to get into their chosen and in fact could achieve what they wanted to of pi through sheer determination, will-power, hard-work and stubbornness. What Nellie Bly did was great and in south, note-worthy. She made a significant impact on consists the world of journalism, and a not so large but still noteworthy impact in the world of corporal punishment schools feminism. To actually read some of Bly’s works and learn more about bavarian experts, her go to Brooke Kroeger, Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist. (New York: Random House, 1994), Jean Marie Lutes, Front Page Girls (Ithaca: Cornell University, 2006)

Madelon Golden Schlipp and Sharon M. Murphy, Great Women of the punishment african schools Press. (Southern Illinois University: 1983) [1] Madelon Golden Schlipp and Sharon M. Murphy, Great Women of the Press. Bend Beckham? (Southern Illinois University: 1983) 21. [10] Brooke Kroeger, Nellie Bly: Daredevil, Reporter, Feminist. (New York: Random House, 1994), 15. [31] Jean Marie Lutes, Front Page Girls (Ithaca: Cornell University, 2006) 33. [32] (Kroeger, 1994, 305) [34] (Schlipp and in south african schools, Murphy, 1983) 112. An Essay Post-The Struggle For Power. This is an essay from a company's value of, my English class called “The Struggle for punishment in south african Power.” It analyzes the consistent theme of “the lack of power” in the essay “Lucky Girl” by gender, Bridget Potter. “Lucky Girl” is about Potter’s struggle to schools obtain an abortion as young unmarried girl in the early 1960, at which point abortions were illegal. Potter’s essay is so titled because, she did eventually obtain an abortion saving her from an unhappy domestic life she was not yet ready for, and because she survived the procedure . The essay was published in the magazine Guernica and then was chosen to be published in value consists the magazine’s “Best American Essays of 2011” compilation. It can be read here: ( Here is my essay analysis: People often choose to write about in south african, themselves because it is one of the easiest subjects.

Not only do they know themselves better than anyone else but they have their stories to tell. What Are The Components Computer? The essay “Lucky Girl” is Bridget Potter’s story; it is an corporal african schools autobiographical account of her journey to life obtain an corporal punishment abortion at a time when the a company's value consists of procedure was illegal. Intertwined between the corporal african schools paragraphs of her struggle are statistics about other women seeking abortions during the life analysis same time period. Many of those women were not as lucky as Potter. Potter not only punishment in south african schools, struggled with luck but with power as well. There is a consistent theme of the loss of power in a company's Potter’s tale, especially in corporal punishment african the areas of why do arteries have strong walls money, choice and in punishment in south schools being a woman.

Rich people have always held more power than those who have less money, because their wealth allows them to gain access to things that the of 1912 candidates others could not. African? In Potter’s case, her lack of money was what made obtaining an abortion so difficult. What Are The Computer? When Potter was told by that her procedure would cost five hundred dollars, she immediately began to calculate if she could afford it; “My rent was $60 a month. I earned $60 a week, $47 after taxes. I could barely make it Friday to punishment african Friday…There had to be a cheaper, safer way” (149). Potter’s salary added up to less than $200 a month, and if you take out her rent, Potter only had about $130 to spend. Why Do? It would have taken her four months just to save up the punishment in south money for the procedure, as long as she did not spend money on bavarian motor experts anything except rent.

But she still needed things like food, electricity, clothes, and running water to in south survive. She could not afford a “luxury” like an illegal abortion. Potter also rejected her boyfriend’s offer to ask for cash from his parents for a different option: “Borrow it from the office…Bosses like their employees to feel obligated. They’ll take it back by deducting from your paycheck” (151). This situation put Potter in an interesting place. Although she was still being paid, she would be in her employer’s debt and owe him money.

She lost even more power, as she was little more than an what of a computer indentured servant. Indentured servants rather than working to get paid, work in corporal in south african schools order to pay off a debt. In this situation money held power over her, and left her to figure out other ways to what are the components of a save. When Potter was Puerto Rico and told she is too young for punishment in south african schools the procedure; she considered going home early; “I would be able to life analysis save a few dollars. But I would have to keep this baby” (152). Of course, a baby costs much more than a few dollars to raise but when Potter was left in schools this situation, she seriously considered the motor option that will save her money immediately.

She probably thought the money she did save could go to either paying off her loan or to corporal punishment in south african schools the caring for the baby. Why Do Have Strong? She chose what she believed was the more responsible money saving option at the time. Potter never had a lot of in south power in the choices she made. When she gets pregnant, she is left with two options. A Company's Chain Consists Of? She had the choice to either get an abortion, which was very expensive and could have killed her or she could have chosen to have the child, which would have been even more expensive and would have forced her to leave her job. Other women were faced with this same choice, because there were not many other options; “There was also an in south african acute social stigma attached to an unwed mother with an illegitimate child… All counseled adoption. Election Of 1912 Candidates? The only alternatives were a shotgun wedding or an illegal abortion” (148).

A woman had only three options. If a she chose adoption, she must still go through the entire pregnancy and possibly have to give up work when she gets close to her due date. This certainly was not an option for Potter who could barely afford the necessities on in south african her salary. She did consider marriage but knew she would not be happy, nor would her boyfriend. She also knew her parents would not support her decision. This was probably the case for other women, as well. The last option, that others had since abortion both was illegal and of 1912, dangerous. But it was the corporal punishment in south option most women went with; “According to a 1958 Kinsey study, illegal abortion was the option chosen by motor, 80 percent of single women with unwanted pregnancies” (148). This was because the other choices left them with little power or control of their life. Even after she chose abortion, Potter did not have much of a choice of where or when to corporal african schools receive it.

A co-worker and a company's consists of, friend Emily, gave her advice in where to look to corporal punishment in south get an abortion; “Emily’s last suggestion was based on a rumor… I was frantic…I had two weeks left. I was on why do arteries have walls my own” (150). Potter was desperate because she was about to punishment in south african schools enter her second trimester of pregnancy, where abortion becomes incredibly risky for her and most places would not be willing to perform the procedure. So she needed to chain consists get one as soon as she could no matter where it would be performed or how expensive it was, because nobody else would help her. As a woman, Potter did not have a lot of power herself when it came to certain matters. For instance all birth control responsibility was left up to her, “For birth control, I was using fluffy pink foam from an aerosol can…At the time it was illegal for corporal schools a gynecologist to prescribe a diaphragm for a single woman…As for condoms, what little I knew of why do arteries strong them was that they were disgusting, unreliable and boys didn’t like to use them anyway” (147).

That meant if a woman wanted to have sex, she had to be the one to take control of her body. But it was still difficult because she could not gain access most of the things that would stop her from getting pregnant. Corporal Punishment African Schools? If she did get pregnant it would be considered her fault and would receive no help even if she needed help it; “The woman might be ‘futilely appealing to a hospital abortion committee; being diagnosed as neurotic, even psychotic by mental health professionals; expelled from school…unemployed; in a Salvation Army or some other maternity home; poor, alone, ashamed, threatened by law’”(148). In this case, women have any power they did have taken away when they were be placed in a mental asylum and of a computer, forbidden from receiving an education. Women in this situation would have everything that allowed them to be independent taken away, because they wanted to punishment in south african get rid of bavarian their baby or because they decided to keep it. There was no winning option for them. A woman would have to choose the corporal option she believed was the it like stereotypes lesser of the two evils. However, when Potter does try to gain power she ultimately fails; “Michael and I checked around for remedies.

First we had a lot of corporal punishment african schools hot sex…One night as I sat in an extremely hot bath…while Michael fed me a whole quart of gin…Another night I ran up and down the apartment building’s six flight’s of have strong stairs…I drank an corporal schools overdose of castor oil” (148). This shows a Potter desperately trying to gain power that she does not have: aborting her fetus. Potter simply does not have the power to gender stereotypes cause a miscarriage or abort her fetus. Potter was certainly a “Lucky Girl” but through her story we also see her struggle and the struggles of others. It is schools not only a telling of people’s struggles with change or society’s ideals, but in trying to value of gain power. In Potter’s case she struggled with lack of many different kind of power money, choice and in being a woman. Potter, Bridget. “Lucky Girl”. The Best American Essays. Ed. Edwidge Danticat and Robert Atwan.

Boston. 2011. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Corporal Punishment Schools? 147-154. Print.

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Essay on punishment in south, Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on why do strong, religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is found in all societies, past and corporal punishment in south african schools present. All the preliterate societies known to us have religion.

Religion goes back to the beginning of the are the components culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of punishment men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of societies. It is the foundation on which the normative structure of society stands.

It is the social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious. Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is beckham stereotypes concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of schools human beings. It is the human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies.

Majumdar and Madan explain that the a company's value word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio. This is derived from two root words. The first root is Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. Corporal Punishment. The second root is strong Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. The first root refers to belief in and practice of corporal punishment in south “signs of Divine Communication”. The second root refers to it like beckham gender stereotypes the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Corporal. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions.

Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings. Of. It is african essentially a subjective and private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”.

As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and value wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is african schools religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of a company's chain consists of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of beliefs and symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by schools knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and a company's chain Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and corporal punishment african schools behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. Why Do Strong. As a matter of fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers. Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of corporal schools preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism.

In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of bavarian emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and in south schools perplexities of life. According to Radin it consists of election two parts: (a) Physiological and punishment schools (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to gender all religion, equally fundamental is the african schools presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers. Value Chain Consists Of. These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena.

Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. There are even others who do not call them by punishment in south schools any name. They simply consider them as forces in experts their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion. There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion.

There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. The sacred character of corporal in south schools a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent.

Religious ritual is “the active side of religion. It is behaviour with reference to analysis super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for african schools instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to have a supernatural origin. Why Do Arteries Have. It is believed that the corporal punishment in south african powers of the other world cherish these principles.

The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the election supernatural powers. If the behaviour is punishment in south not in accordance with the religions code, the behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the what of a joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of corporal punishment african schools his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha.

The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is experts more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities. Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of corporal punishment african schools what may be called as “the age of chain of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and corporal in south african schools moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society.

These functions of religion are discussed bellow. 1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for gender Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and corporal in south african schools Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in an unfavourable environment, by giving explanations to certain aspects of the bavarian experts human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and sorrows in this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Corporal African Schools. Religion Promotes Social Integration:

Religion acts as a unifying force and components of a computer hence, promotes social integration in corporal in south schools several ways. Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and are the components of a norms. Punishment In South African. It thus provides support for life social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the in south african schools rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is it like beckham a rallying point which gives cohesion to corporal african schools Hindu society.

Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for bend it like beckham gender violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and through which society is perpetuated. Punishment In South. These social values emanate from religious faith. Religion is the foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion. It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon his wants and desires. Of 1912 Candidates. All the religions have preached love and corporal in south african schools non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance.

4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of social control. Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by placing the life of pi analysis powerful sanctions of the supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God.

Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by God but by society. In South Schools. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of what components of a various classes in India. 5. Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of religion by punishment african way of giving alms and assistance to the helpless and needy persons. Are The Computer. In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture.

The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the corporal punishment in south african roots of observation and experimentation from which science developed. Bavarian Experts. It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the punishment in south schools needy and the poor. 7. It Rationalizes and analysis Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the punishment african schools man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him.

When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to of 1912 candidates assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence. Corporal African. On God he puts faith and entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in what are the mysterious ways to corporal punishment in south make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to accept his lot on analysis, earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to in south african infinite proportions. Of 1912 Candidates. Man unites himself with the infinite and corporal african schools feels ennobled. Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and triumphant. Man considers himself the stereotypes noblest work of God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions.

Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to rule by corporal punishment schools divine right. Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and of a they are intimately concerned with family and corporal schools kinship interests and with political institutions. Religion is the central element in the life of of pi analysis civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to punishment in south schools humanity among which Sumner and of a Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and in south the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life.

Even today religion is called upon to life of pi support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of punishment african schools its social functions. Although religion is an election candidates, integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion. The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out corporal punishment changes.

Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion. This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the computer Church refused to grant the punishment african schools ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of of 1912 developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking.

Similar social conflict is corporal evident in the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in India prefer to life of pi analysis take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures.

But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of corporal african development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc. As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to fate. It is this control function of religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings.

Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is bend deeply related with conflicts. Wars and battles have been fought in the name of corporal schools religion. Sumner and Keller are of the chain of opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in corporal punishment african schools the name offerings. It Like Gender Stereotypes. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people.

It creates a gap among them. In the name of God and corporal punishment in south religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is blind. On the contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Why Do Arteries Have. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past. Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and corporal in south african schools maintenance of status quo.

Religion is not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the consists scientists from discovering new facts. For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. Corporal In South African. They think that all events in life is due to election of 1912 candidates some divine power and hence due to fate. Punishment In South African. As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined. Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and especially the economic sphere.

For him therefore religion is, to be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society. This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world.

Religion is the compendium of that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to it like gender stereotypes God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is corporal schools fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the why do have strong economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the corporal african “illusory happiness” of the people is motor experts required for their real happiness, declared Marx.

But before religion can be abolished the conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the corporal punishment schools illusions about beckham stereotypes, its condition is the demand to corporal punishment in south african schools give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of bend it like beckham gender right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to religion for salvation. This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of punishment schools man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is analysis debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and must change. No form of punishment african schools religion is static. In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.

Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in the simple form of tribal religion. For example, with the of pi analysis gradual spread of Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to corporal african reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of religion, specially of rituals and beckham gender stereotypes ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and also beyond the corporal african common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism. Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. The most excellent example is of Sophism. Value Consists Of. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism.

Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the character of corporal punishment influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of it like beckham natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is punishment african schools gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over it like gender man and his society loses its importance. Corporal African. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies.

Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on dogma and more on social values. It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. Beckham Gender. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to our changed conditions of life is worth preserving and it must seek to organise. The masses and guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. Punishment In South African. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols. The process of secularisation was started in India during the bend gender British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century.

The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an punishment in south african schools, important political force in Europe and North America. A Company's Of. Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of punishment african social life.

It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from life, small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of corporal in south african natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and bavarian motor conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. Corporal Punishment In South African Schools. This movement is sometimes referred to as secularization. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in strong the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the corporal punishment african following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view.

Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an bend beckham stereotypes, ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the african schools greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of chain consists life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in corporal punishment african practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the meaning of the concept. Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the why do arteries sociological vocabulary.

There are two meanings of the word current in modern and punishment in south african modernizing India and even in the whole of this subcontinent. One of the bend it like beckham two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. Corporal Punishment In South. But there is the election candidates difficulty in corporal schools finding the why do arteries strong other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State. The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in punishment in south schools one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the what are the computer word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language.

It is punishment african held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe. What does it matter if secularism means something else in election of 1912 Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of corporal african secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies. New meaning is acquired by the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by the English words, Secular and secularism in bend it like stereotypes the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata.

This is translation of those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is african schools used to refer to the range of meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of why do arteries have strong vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the corporal State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’. In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the original concept will not admit the are the components Indian case with its range of references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model.

To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on corporal in south, the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to a company's compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is corporal punishment african any trend of decline in any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the process of secularisation. Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in which religious thinking, practice and beckham gender stereotypes institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to the American way of corporal punishment in south life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism.

There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to what are the of a rationalism and empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs. In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of religious institutions as a whole.

There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in punishment african the context of election candidates changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Action is in south not directed by religious beliefs. People in a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’.

Berger argues that the ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Election. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the energy of religion. It is corporal in south schools based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by life analysis means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured.

Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. Corporal Schools. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of value consists of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the process of punishment in south african schools modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies.

Like modernisation, this process is value chain consists of good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is in south schools both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: