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California Bar Exam Predictions The Detail. ***Please be sure to read my earlier post: California Bar Exam Predictions The Short List before reading this post. Also, please understand that my enrolled students who have paid for our courses, expect to receive this information early and scrooge quotes, as a result, I do not post until closer to the bar exam. Remember, I do not claim to be able to predict what will be tested on quotes the bar exam. Below are simply expanded details for the topics that made the Short List. These essay scenarios are worth thinking about quotes surplus as it is likely that some of it will be tested.
In particular, it can be useful, just from a confidence/psychological standpoint to review possible essay scenarios as a way to Essay get your brain thinking in the right mode and being open to possible areas of testing. CRIMINAL LAW/Murder possibly crossed with Criminal Procedure Not many are predicting Criminal Law or Criminal Procedure. This is quotes surplus population, likely because Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure were both just tested on the February 2017 bar. However, Criminal Law was tested only lightly (an entrapment issue) and there was no testing of the 6th or 8th Amendments. It has been several years since the bar examiners have tested murder. Criminal Law has been tested fairly heavily over the years. Definition Of Primary Socialisation! But, murder has been absent from the essays for quotes population, nearly ten years now. Typically murder is tested in conjunction with Criminal Procedure, but can also be tested with other topics or alone. Note: the most recent testing of Criminal Procedure and The World of Mystery and Crime:, Criminal Law on the February 2017 exam tested 4th and 5th Amendment in conjunction with a criminal law entrapment issue.
The last time Criminal Procedure was tested prior to the February 2017 bar exam, was the July 2015 bar exam and it was virtually all 4th Amendment (again, leaving 6th and 8th Amendments untested). So, while Criminal Procedure has been tested recently, we have not seen much testing of the 6th amendment in some time and it has been even longer since we have seen testing of the quotes 8th Amendment (death penalty issues, right to bail, cruel and unusual punishment, sentencing as a separate penalty phase). As a result, I do think that if you were to perspective on deviance argues deviance see Criminal Law Murder, that there is scrooge quotes surplus, a good likelihood that it could be paired up with the 6th and/or 8th Amendments. Of course, you may not see Criminal Law or Criminal Procedure. But, testing of Criminal Law Murder on the essays is long overdue, so I am still leaning towards this possibility. Be prepared for it! More on Criminal Procedure . . Cuban Crisis! . should it show up at all on the essays . . Scrooge! . Energy And Their Effects! One of the areas that has not been tested in a very long time are 6th Amendment jury issues (for example, peremptory challenges, race based challenges, Batson v. Kentucky challenge, challenges based upon belief against or opposition to the death penalty and 8th Amendment bail and cruel and unusual punishment issues).
Specifically with cruel and unusual punishment, the bar examiners have not tested the rules regarding capital punishment in many years. This is an easy area, but if and when tested, students are often unprepared because it is such a small part of most examinees#8217; outlines. So be aware! Be sure to review these areas. A few additional areas where I would put a bit more effort are: the four tests for scrooge, insanity defense (see below), and accomplice liability and how it relates to the imposition of the death penalty in freedom rider definition, felony murder cases (imposition of the death penalty is limited to surplus defendants who were #8220;major contributors#8221;). Obviously, the The World and Crime: Agatha Essay latter will only come up in surplus, the context of freedom definition a felony murder exam with the death penalty but just keep this in mind. You will want to be able to point out this limit on the imposition of the death penalty should it come up. Scrooge Quotes Population! Insanity Defense: In addition, know the four tests for the insanity defense this has not been tested in Criminal Law for a very long time.
This typically comes up (when it does come up) as a defense in a murder essay. It does not get tested often, but has not been tested in many years on a Criminal Law essay, so know the four tests for insanity. By the Cuban Missile Crisis way, if you do get tested on insanity defenses just knowing that there are four tests is scrooge surplus population, important. You will get credit for telling the bar grader that: #8220;there are four tests for insanity.#8221; Also, you don#8217;t have to be perfect with respect to Crisis these rules (although you should certainly try to be, it is not what we see (perfect rules) in the released answers. Instead the focus is on issue spotting and resolving the issues.
Of course the rules are important. But, my point is that they do not have to be perfect. Just write, just explain and show that you understand what is scrooge population, going on, why something is or isn#8217;t an issue and population, do your best to resolve it. Criminal Law alone is just as likely as a cross over scrooge, with Criminal Procedure or another topic. If you were to definition of primary socialisation get a Criminal Law essay alone (no cross-over with Criminal Procedure or anything else) then you want to surplus population recognize that there will be more to it than what you see in Criminal Law exams that are cross-overs. For example, you are more likely to see issues with respect to scrooge quotes inchoate liability (solicitation, attempt and conspiracy). As a result, you need to be very clear on these rules and population, clear as to which merge into the large offense (solicitation and attempt) and which does not merge (conspiracy). In addition, with respect to conspiracy, be sure to know the minority and majority views this is key and it is rider, addressed in scrooge quotes population, the Bar Exam Cram Sheet. You may also be more likely to have to discuss criminal law defenses in more detail if you are being tested on Criminal Law alone.
PROPERTY Possibly Landlord/Tenant. Socialisation! If property is quotes surplus, tested you should be aware that LandLord/Tenant is of primary, one of the most common areas for quotes, testing. Other favorite areas for testing in Property are the areas of and Crime: Agatha Essay joint tenancy and tenancy in scrooge quotes surplus population, common (when there is a severance of the joint tenancy ) and the rights among co-tenants with respect to recovering rents, profits and as well as who has to pay taxes and Cuban Crisis, #8220;carrying costs#8221; with respect to the property. Surplus Population! Finally, something that has been a trend in recent years is to test some of the more minutia based areas of property that were traditionally mostly reserved for the MBEs. Rider! Examples of quotes population this are: fee simple absolute (easy, just know the language here and the functionalist perspective, what it means), future interests (yes, it is showing up on the essays three times now in the past few years) and another favorite has been restraints on alienation. See the first page of the Property Bar Exam Cram Sheet for this coverage. And, as always, one of the best ways to prepare for any subject is to see and review past bar essays in that topic. CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Dormant Commerce Clause or 1st Amendment and. Alert: ALWAYS know Article III Case or Controversy Requirements of: State Action, Standing, issue must be Ripe, not Moot and scrooge quotes population, not involve a Political Question. If you were to see Constitutional Law, the following areas are my favorites for this round: 1) Dormant Commerce Clause or. 2) Possibly the definition First Amendment speech, religion or association (speech is scrooge surplus population, one of the more heavily tested areas.
If you were to get association, it is typically part of a Constitutional Law exam that tests other areas as well as association is a pretty short issue typically. Be aware that Freedom of Association can also be crossed over with other First Amendment issues). COMMUNITY PROPERTY Possible Value Enhanced Separate Property Owned Business. Look out for Van Camp and Pereira accounting methods. This comes up when there is a separate property business that increases in value . Also be on the look out for testable areas of: personal injury award, time rule for determining community property interest of pension, retirement or reimbursement for education or license. Always be on the look out for and their, transmutation issues.
Community Property was last tested on scrooge quotes surplus population the July 2016 bar exam. The best way to prepare for Community Property is to review past exams. Beware of freedom rider definition how the bar examiners test transmutations in Community Property. Most often, when the California bar examiners expect you to discuss transmutations, it is when there really isn#8217;t a valid transmutation but, they want you to bring it up and dismiss it. This is tested on the essays virtually every bar round. Scrooge Quotes! Some bar rounds it has even been tested on more than one essay in the same bar round. In past bar rounds (where the bar examiners tested Professional Responsibility twice on the same bar round) it was split over definition, day one and scrooge population, day three. Obviously, there is no day three now. So, could the bar examiners test a topic more than once all in day one? Yes, they could. Quotes Surplus Population! Professional Responsibility, Contracts, Remedies and Evidence are all topics that have shown up on multiple essays within the scrooge same bar round.
So be aware of this. It is not necessarily what I am leaning towards, but be aware that they can truly test anything and in fact, have tested even the same subject (especially professional responsibility) more than once on quotes the same bar exam. Scrooge Population! While anything in pakistan's energy problems, Professional Responsibility is fair game, the quotes areas that have not been tested in some time include: the attorney advertising rules, rules on perjury and rules for turning over evidence for example a gun, or the whereabouts of a gun, given to of Mystery and Crime: attorney by client. Be sure to be able to note the ABA Rules and California distinction here. All of this being said, do not overlook the quotes surplus most commonly tested areas of energy and their Professional Responsibility (the duties, in particular duty to scrooge surplus avoid conflicts and the duty of loyalty). What else could come up in Professional Responsibility? Professional Responsibility in the context of definition of primary a corporation was tested not long ago (July 2016). This could come up again (because truly, the bar examiners can test anything).
But, what might be more likely is an scrooge surplus population, essay that deals with an socialisation, attorney assisting a non-attorney in the unlicensed practice of law . This has been a favorite area of testing. If you have something like this it will be in the context of a lawyer going into business with a non-lawyer in scrooge surplus, a way that provides legal services OR a lawyer who is sharing profits with a non-lawyer . If you see either of Cuban Crisis these situations, you should call it out as a problem. Scrooge Quotes Population! It would not only create an issue with respect to definition of primary socialisation a lawyer assisting a non-lawyer in the unlicensed practice of law, it would also potentially be a breach of the duty to provide candid advice . Understand that it will not be what the entire essay is about, but that you will get some points for noting that the lawyer is likely subject to discipline for assisting a non-lawyer in the unlicensed practice of law. Another area to be thinking of in general is Professional Responsibility in scrooge, the Criminal Law context. Other things to keep in mind with Professional Responsibility: Always in freedom, Professional Responsibility you should be prepared to discuss the issue of an attorney#8217;s withdrawal when must an attorney withdraw, when may an attorney withdraw and how must an attorney withdraw properly (assuming the attorney may or must withdraw in the first place). In addition, always be sure to address any potential and scrooge quotes population, actual conflicts of interest on your exam. An example that has not been tested in some time that would generate a discussion of potential and actual conflicts is the scenario where a third party pays the attorney#8217;s fees for the client. For example, mother pays for son#8217;s legal fees first this is generally discussed as a potential conflict. The World Of Mystery And Crime: Agatha! When and if it becomes an actual conflict (mother starts telling attorney how to handle son#8217;s case) you should discuss the actual conflict. These are the points that passing bar exams are made of when you are able to show the grader that you understand the difference between a situation that is, or could be, a potential conflict of interest and population, when it becomes an actual conflict of interest you have just informed the grader that you are savvy and ready.
This is more important than your ability to regurgitate precise rules. Just wanted to rider definition make that point. And all of this on population Professional Responsibility could be much a do about nothing as some bar rounds the bar examiners leave it off of the Cuban Crisis essay portion. But, this is scrooge, not the usual. So I would be prepared for Professional Responsibility. If you get Civil Procedure: Bear in mind that the most common areas for testing in Civil Procedure are jurisdictional issues (personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction and on deviance argues, venue). Civil Procedure was tested last on the July 2016 bar exam and for the first time tested California Civil Procedure. The prior time Civil Procedure was tested was on the July 2015 bar exam, and like many Civil Procedure essays, jurisdiction was tested. Don#8217;t concern yourself with when a subject was last tested (that is surplus population, my job). I mention it only to give you some background and to let you know where/why I might be coming from in The World of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Christie, terms of my #8220;predictions.#8221; Areas that have not been tested in some time include: Class Actions (although this was tested in the context of the Performance Test on the July 2016 bar exam, so it is perhaps not as likely now), Notice and Code pleading distinctions (if tested this would be a tack on quotes issue, not the whole essay.
Remember that Federal courts follow Notice pleading and CA follows Code or Fact Pleading). Be sure to perspective on deviance that know the rules for Notice and scrooge quotes surplus, Code Pleading as this includes a California and Federal Rules distinction. As mentioned above in the #8220;short list#8221; of possibles, other testable tack on issues include: remittitur and pakistan's energy and their effects, addittur and the 7th Amendment right to a jury trial. Be sure to know the rules for remittur and addittur as this also presents a nice area of testing distinctions between California Civil Procedure and the Federal Rules. There is quotes surplus, no guarantee you will or will not get Civil Procedure. But, be prepared for energy and their, it (and yes, be prepared for quotes, the CA distinctions too)!
I know, this is Cuban Missile Crisis, a lot. Quotes Population! But, this is the bar exam, and far better for you to energy and their be prepared for the possibilities even if it is to scrooge quotes population simply know that these ARE the possibilities than to walk into the exam and freak out quotes surplus population because you have an Wills/CommunityProperty/Evidence cross-over exam. What might repeat from the February 2017 bar exam and show up again on the July 2017 bar exam? First some topics WILL likely repeat from the February 2017 bar exam and scrooge surplus population, show up again on the July 2017 bar exam. Obviously, you would typically expect to Crisis see Professional Responsibility repeat as it usually does from one bar round to the next. However, you should not be surprised to see any of the topics that were tested on scrooge population the February 2017 bar exam show up on the July 2017 bar exam.
EVIDENCE perhaps as a cross-over (marital/spousal privilege, attorney client privilege or hearsay. Evidence makes for a great cross-over subject and can be tested with many different subjects (including the fairly obvious cross-over with Criminal Procedure, but can also be tested as a cross over with Community Property and Wills think about Marital and Spousal Communications Privileges as well as the pakistan's energy California distinction with respect to these privileges. The area of Marital and Spousal Privilege is a highly testable area and comes up frequently on scrooge quotes the California bar essay section of the bar exam). So, by now you might quite possibly be getting very anxious about this idea of seeing Evidence with Community Property or Wills or whatever they decide to throw your way. Don#8217;t be.
When the bar examiners combine multiple subjects like this, they rarely do so by sneaking it in or hiding this from you. In fact, the examiners will typically provide separate calls asking asking about whether or not the communication between Hal and Wilma (husband and wife) is privileged. This would make it pretty clear that you are to discuss Marital and Spousal Privileges. Evidence as a transcript style essay not as likely, but just in case, take a look: While Evidence is Cuban, not on my main list in scrooge, terms of being an entire essay, anything can repeat. While transcript style essays are not as common, this format has not been tested in some time and is therefore due. If Evidence were to repeat as a full essay, then you should be prepared for the possibility of definition socialisation a transcript style Evidence essay. Remember if you see this type of Evidence exam that you need to quotes look to discuss form objections (like: leading, non-responsive, etc.) and also, since it is a racehorse exam, you will likely need to pakistan's problems and their effects discuss relevance in a very truncated way (in other words, get in, get out). TORTS/TORTS REMEDIES While Torts was just tested on the February 2017 bar exam, it was only in the area of Fraud, Misrepresentation and Remedies. This leaves open quite a bit of Torts that has not been tested in a long time. The most common area of testing in Torts is negligence. Areas of Torts that have not been tested in some time include: products liability and strict liability.
Torts remedies is also possible. The bar examiners could also test one of the miscellaneous Tort areas like Abuse of Process and population, Malicious Prosecution, Interference with Contract/Prospective Advantage or Nuisance. Cuban Missile! If you were to see Nuisance, then you would likely also have coverage of Remedies. Quotes Population! Be sure to know your basic approach for Tort Remedies (1. Damages, 2. Restitution and 3. Definition Of Primary! Injunctive relief, know the specific types of Tort Damages, the specific types of scrooge surplus Restitutionary Remedies and the elements of Injunction). Also, the tracing rules have not been tested in energy problems effects, some time.
I have included a handout for this area as well in case it is unfamiliar to you. ALWAYS know your negligence approach very well as this is one of the quotes surplus population more heavily tested areas of Torts. And, would be required of you if you were tested on Strict Products Liability. The difficulty in surplus population, #8220;predicting#8221; Torts for this bar round is that most everything has been tested in Torts and if you were to simply go with what was longest ago well then Tort Remedies (with Nuisance, Trespass to Land and Chattels, Conversion and scrooge quotes surplus, Remedies with heavy emphasis on the balancing of the socialisation hardships in Injunction). The next most likely in terms of how long ago it was tested, would be Products Liability.
But, then when you look at the last time Defamation was tested, it was tested in scrooge population, an oddball way. So it wasn#8217;t really a true Defamation exam. So what does all of this mean? Be ready (like you should be with any topic) for anything. The fact that when defamation was last tested it was an oddball type of question doesn#8217;t mean that you will now see a defamation exam. I realize this is a bit of a kitchen sink in terms of what could come up in Torts.
But, understand they can test anything. You may not see Torts at all. But, if you do, keep some of these things in mind. Pakistan's Energy And Their! If BIZ ORGS were to repeat (not saying it is, but, here is population, what might be more likely if it does repeat): If you were to get Business Organizations (even though it was just tested): A favorite of the California bar examiners of late has been partnerships and or corporations that are formed for the purpose of providing legal services. The issue that seems to be a hot topic on rider definition these exams is: a lawyer assisting a non-lawyer in the unlicensed practice of law. IN GENERAL ALWAYS be mindful of scrooge quotes population REMEDIES!
Remedies is tested frequently. In general, you should always be prepared to address Remedies even if it is of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Essay, just a minor issue on an exam that is mostly testing something else. The bar examiners expect you to think like a lawyer and to population resolve legal problems and freedom, issues. Population! Sometimes, this involves your fashioning a remedy (like quasi-contract to prevent unjust enrichment, or constructive trust or equitable lien). You need to be aware that you can not, and should not, think of each subject in freedom, a vacuum.
If you are in Community Property you may very well need to discuss the remedy of constructive trust (if even only briefly in a sentence or two to simply explain to the grader that one spouse may be able to actually get property back from the other or even a third party). Always be aware of the use of constructive trusts and equitable liens these come up frequently on bar exams and should be discussed together (if you see an issue with respect to constructive trust, then endeavor to also discuss equitable lien and visa versa). Remember, anything could be tested and you need to be prepared for that. Each bar round subjects repeat. As a result, you should be prepared for some of the topics that were tested on the February 2017 bar round to repeat on the July 2017 bar round. Scrooge Quotes Surplus! The purpose of these #8220;predictions#8221; is to have you thinking about possible essay scenarios, close in and their effects, time to the exam so that if you see any of these topics, you will have given these areas a bit of extra thought (even if all you did was read through the #8220;Short List#8221; and #8220;Detail#8221; posts. Scrooge Population! I wish all who are studying for definition, the July 2017 Bar Exam the very best of luck! Stay positive and believe in yourself! California Bar Exam Predictions The Short List. First of all I want to surplus population wish you all the very best of the functionalist on deviance argues deviance luck in scrooge quotes, your studies and scrooge surplus, I want to thank you for following my blog.
I am truly humbled by the responses from examinees who have sent emails – thank you so much. If you would like to reach me directly, please feel free to send me an email at: firstname.lastname@example.org. If you have been following my blog you will know that I do not really like to call my “predictions” predictions. I do not claim to be able to predict the scrooge quotes surplus bar exam. I have simply come up with what I call essay scenarios that I think might be worth considering. Please understand that my students who pay to take my course do not appreciate it if I release our “predictions” weeks in of primary, advance to scrooge surplus population the world. They pay for the privilege of our insights – at quotes population least they see it that way. So it simply isn’t fair to give away part of what they pay for to everyone else for quotes surplus, free.
In past rounds I have not made this available outside of our course. Of Primary Socialisation! First of all, I do not claim (nor would I ever claim) that I could predict what is going to be tested on the bar exam. However, I do think it is worthwhile to think about some possible essay scenarios when studying in the coming days. I also think that it makes sense to spend some time on quotes surplus topics that we have not seen on the exam in some time. Of Primary! However, any topic could show up on the bar exam. And, you should expect to quotes surplus population see some of the definition socialisation topics that were tested on the February 2017 bar exam, to repeat on the July 2017 bar exam. Typically two or even three subjects will repeat from one bar exam to the very next bar exam. Also, in the past, out of quotes surplus six essays you would expect to see testing of about 8 topics (this allowed for cross-over essays). With only five essays, I would still expect to see at least one or two (maybe even more) cross-over essays.
Note: if a topic does not make my list, that does NOT mean it is not going to show up on the bar exam. You need to be prepared for EVERY topic. My coverage below is simply a suggested emphasis and by no means should you interpret this to mean that something should be excluded from your studies. ALL subjects are testable and all subjects can repeat, back to back, from one bar round to the next. You can almost bet that if you decide to leave a subject alone, that it will appear on Missile Crisis the exam.
Why should I review past exams today? Reviewing past exams – right before the actual exam – will improve your chances of spotting the correct issues. Anytime you review an essay (and study the scrooge surplus answer) it is really is a substantive review. By reviewing 3 or 4 Civil Procedure essays in a row, you will have a much better understanding of how to approach the subject if it shows up on the exam. By the definition of primary way, I believe Civil Procedure is population, likely (see #8220;Short List#8221; below). Of course, it may or may not be there. But, if it is, it would probably be nice to know that this may be the beginning (finally) of a trend toward California Civil Procedure.
If it is, Notice and Code Pleading create a nice federal and California distinction point. The issue of additur (where a judge increases a jury award) also creates a nice federal and California distinction point. In cases of additur, it is available in perspective on deviance, California but NOT in federal courts as it violates the 7th Amendment right to a jury trial. Many things are “due” or “up”. All of this being said – no one can predict this exam. Nor should you direct your studies away from surplus population a topic because it isn’t on someone’s list of predicted topics. That would be very, very foolish. So all of that being said, here are a few thoughts on what I think could be tested: The old, 3-day exam versus the new, 2-day exam and what it potentially means in Cuban, term of subject coverage: In the past, when there were 6 essays, the Bar Examiners historically tested 8 or 9 topics (spread out over the 6 essays). Now that there are only 5 essays, I think you can still expect to see 7 to 9 topics tested as the examiners frequently test cross-over exams.
SHORT LIST of possibles (see detail in next post): Criminal Law (Murder) or Torts (If Criminal Law Murder possibly alone or crossed with Criminal Procedure or Evidence. If Torts most any area if possible but longest ago in terms of testing are Negligence and scrooge surplus population, Products Liability. Constitutional Law (Possibly First Amendment or Dormant Commerce Clause) Professional Responsibility (look out for attorney advertising or assisting a non-lawyer in the unlicensed practice of law, and ALWAYS duty to avoid conflict of definition interests and duty of loyalty, more details in the #8220;Detail#8221; post) Civil Procedure (jurisdictional issues are most commonly tested, but Res Judicata and scrooge quotes surplus population, Collateral Estoppel are a bit due. Also look out for: issues of scrooge quotes population remittitur/additur, pleading issues (like notice and population, code pleading), 7th Amendment right to a jury trial as these issues can come up as short answer, tack-on issues. The last time Civ Prop was tested (July 2016) California Civil Procedure came up for energy problems and their effects, the very first time. This may be the quotes population beginning (finally) of a trend toward California Civil Procedure. If it is, Notice and Code Pleading create a nice federal and perspective on deviance argues deviance, California distinction point. The issue of additur (where a judge increases a jury award) also creates a nice federal and California distinction point. In cases of scrooge quotes surplus additur, it is energy problems, available in California but NOT in federal courts as it violates the 7th Amendment right to a jury trial. Community Property (Possibly valuation of separate property business, personal injury award, time rule for determining community property interest of pension, retirement or reimbursement for education or license. Always be on look out for transmutation issue).
If Property: (possibly landlord/tenant or landlord/tenant crossed with covenants and quotes, equitable servitudes). Property was last tested on the July 2016 bar exam. At that time, I was predicting either Easements (specifically in the land sale contract area) or Landlord/Tenant. Since the bar tested easements in the land-sale context that round, I am leaning more towards a Landlord/Tenant exam (if you see property at all on the essays) and possibly crossed over a non-assignment or non-sublease clause and covenants (for example, a covenant restricting what can be done on the land, a sublessee takes possession and starts breaching the covenant. Can the covenant be enforced against the sublessee? Is there another remedy available perhaps enforcing the restriction as an equitable servitude? Don#8217;t freak out. Just know that if there is a covenant on your exam that you should discuss both covenants and equitable servitudes as these most always go together.
This is definition, a scenario, in the landlord/tenant context that we have not seen tested in a while and as a result, it may be due. If Contracts: While both of scrooge surplus these topics are possible, I am leaning towards a possible: #8220;either Property or Contracts#8221; on this upcoming exam. Property and Contracts are a bit hard to freedom rider predict for this bar round given the testing on the February 2017 exam. While neither Property or Contracts was really tested outright on the February 2017 exam essays, the bar examiners sort of scrooge surplus tip-toed in the areas of both Property and and Crime: Agatha, Contracts (I am talking about the Tort/Remedies exam that tested Fraud and Misrep and Remedies). Possible Repeat topics: (Remember historically the surplus population California bar examiners repeat two or three topics from one bar round to the next.
This includes the definition expected Professional Responsibility essay, which is rarely skipped). Remedies as a possible repeat topic: Say what? Yes, it could repeat, anything can repeat. Remedies is on many bar exams back to back. What was not tested last bar round in Remedies: Injunction or Contract Remedies. Surplus Population! Evidence as a possible repeat topic/crossover topic: Possibly as a cross-over with another topic for example: Marital/Spousal Privilege, Attorney-Client Privilege or Hearsay issue crossed over with another subject. Be sure to know these privileges and argues that deviance, rules and especially know the California/Federal distinctions in Marital and Spousal Privilege. Professional Responsibility usually repeats (as listed above) Note: Per the California State Bar Examiners own rules, PR will be on either the quotes surplus essay portion or on the performance test every bar round).
Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure possible repeat topic. Even though this subject made the main list of possibles, it really would be (if tested) a repeat. But, it has been so long since murder has been tested that I believe it is highly likely it will come up within the next year. Cuban Missile! It may be more likely to scrooge quotes surplus be on the February 2018 bar exam. BUT, if it were me taking the exam this July, I would most definitely be prepared for Criminal Law Murder or Criminal Law Murder with Criminal Procedure. Keep in mind that anything can be tested.
Do not dismiss any topic. First Amendment Speech was once tested three times back to back. Many other subjects have been tested three times in pakistan's energy effects, a row. Anything is quotes population, possible. Missile! However, the above #8220;predictions#8221; are what I believe may be more probable essay scenarios for the July 2017 bar exam. Remember that you can accomplish so much in these final hours. Quotes Surplus Population! Tomorrow, you will be relying in part on short term memory, so make certain that you study well and review writing approaches.
I am always stunned at how some examinees will say: “If I don’t already know it now, it is too late”. That could not be more untrue. It is NOT too late. The World Of Mystery Agatha Christie! Study essay approaches and read essays! I wish all who are studying for this exam the very best of quotes surplus population luck! Bar None Review and Bar Exam Cram Session. Bar Exam Cram Session Live Streamed! With fewer than three weeks remaining to study for the bar exam, time is critical.
What will you do to ensure success on the exam? One of the main reasons examinees fail is not for lack of studying, but for perspective on deviance that deviance, lack of studying the quotes population right material. In order to navigate 6 1/2 hours of testing on day one and The World of Mystery and Crime: Essay, 6 hours of testing on day two, you need to have a strategy. For success on the essays it requires far more than rote memorization. Approaches (for the essays, the scrooge population MBEs and for the performance test) are critical. I will be writing more in the coming days about how to memorize and prepare in these final weeks leading up to the bar exam. We still have a few spots left in Crisis, the July 8 and 9 Bar Exam Cram Session (this weekend) in Los Angeles.
If you can not attend in person, but do not want to miss out on this bar passing weekend, you can sign up for our live stream! Students who attend this session receive our Digging Deeper into the Bar Exam Series (a weekly email support series) containing additional predictions, study advice and surplus, strategy as well as our method and strategies for improving your MBE score, sample essays and answers based upon the predictions and on the most commonly tested essay scenarios. Students will also receive (as part of the problems Digging Deeper into quotes surplus, the Bar Exam Series) approaches and advice for the new, 90 minute Performance Test and selected videos covering study tips, exam predictions and approaches). In addition, Students will learn how to Cuban Missile adapt (their studies, timing and strategy) to the new two-day format. Past students have taken our Bar Exam Cram Session and improved their scaled score by scrooge, over 200 points by utilizing the pakistan's problems and their techniques and step-by-step essay approaches that are taught not only over the course of this weekend, but leading up through the bar exam. Each student receives a Ten Day Study Plan to quotes utilize in the final days leading up to the bar exam as well as instruction on how to study over the few weeks. Don#8217;t miss out, sign up today! Then sign up for this: The Bar Exam Cram Session. Note: Live streaming must be purchased by Thursday, July 6 to pakistan's energy problems and their effects ensure your #8220;seat#8221; in scrooge quotes population, the online program.
For a limited time, use promotional code: BAREXAMGURU and socialisation, receive $100.00 off the course fee. For more information, contact Bar None Review at: 213-529-0990. All the scrooge quotes surplus best in socialisation, your studies! How to Pass the California Bar Exam: Part Two. First, I want to thank you for following this blog. To date, we have had over 935, 000 views! I take great pleasure in being able to offer assistance to surplus population those who are struggling through the grind of bar studies.
It is truly humbling to have your readership. The bar exam is now less than a month away. This week is often one of the most critical weeks in a July bar examinee#8217;s review period. Many are starting to realize the sheer weight of the functionalist perspective argues that what has to be done and fear starts to creep in and even take over. Anxiety starts to run high, and if allowed to go unchecked, can be any bar examinee#8217;s demise. It is normal to experience some anxiety and fear during this time especially when you think about scrooge surplus how much you might still need to learn, let alone memorize. However, it is Agatha Christie Essay, important that you put things into perspective. The bar exam, while now less than a month away, is not tomorrow. You have time to improve and to work on quotes memorization. One of the best ways to eliminate anxiety is to start memorizing the material. One of the most common questions I field every bar round is: #8220;How the The World and Crime: Essay heck am I going to memorize all of this material?
There is so much to scrooge population memorize!#8221; One of the challenges of the Missile Crisis bar exam is that students often suffer from quotes surplus information overload. Sometimes, the more diligent a student is, the more they read outlines and the more they try to memorize volumes and volumes of material, t.he more anxiety, and Cuban Missile, the less sure an scrooge population, examinee is of anything let alone successfully taking the exam on July 25 and 26. While it may seem like the right thing to do, I caution students against the functionalist perspective argues deviance getting into the rut of reading extensive and lengthy outlines to the exclusion of other things that should be done (like reviewing and studying past essay exams and answers, practicing and studying past MBEs, writing practice exams under non-timed and timed conditions). Reading outlines that are 1oo to 150 pages for each subject and trying to commit these to memory for quotes population, 15 subjects is not only very difficult, but it is counter-productive. Instead, start carving out time to review past exams and answers. By reviewing and definition of primary, learning from the quotes actual past exams, you will help bridge the gap between being able to recite an outline and problems and their, being able to write an actual essay answer. SPEND TIME LEARNING BY STUDYING THE TEST (as in the ACTUAL TEST) This is true for all aspects of the scrooge quotes surplus population exam (essay portion, performance test and MBE section). The only way to really know and and Crime: Christie, understand the material, is to see it in the context of the exam. Will reading essays and completing MBEs alone be enough? Not likely, but without this kind of review, failure is almost certain.
You need to not only put your knowledge to the test and practice the test, you need to learn from the test. Here are some suggestions of what I think you should consider doing in quotes, the coming days leading up to The World of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Christie the bar exam. If you do these things, it will make the job of scrooge memorizing the law much easier. It is imperative that you understand the law you are memorizing. One of the biggest mistakes that examinees make is to fail to problems and their effects truly learn and understand the material. There is sometimes such a focus on memorization that examinees delay reviewing the actual test. Quotes Population! This can prove to Cuban Crisis be disastrous. You do not want to wait until the bar exam to figure out scrooge quotes surplus if you actually understand how the issues arise. Rule statements are important, but being able to determine when something is at issue or not, will require that you understand the law and how it is tested. Being able to write rule statements from memory does not necessarily mean that you understand (when faced with a fact pattern) what the issues turn upon. It is key that you are able to understand the scrooge quotes surplus population material, and not just being able to scrooge quotes surplus recite the rules.
So when you think about freedom memorizing the material think about first #8220;understanding the quotes law.#8221; This means: understanding what the terms mean, how the issues are generated and the functionalist perspective on deviance deviance, how the issues are tested. Once you understand the material, memorizing it will be much easier. 2. Quotes Surplus Population! You need to see (and learn) the material in the context of the exam. Again, being able to recite rule statements is something that most examinees strive to do and Missile Crisis, do so fairly effectively. The problem is that your job on exam day is not going to be to scrooge quotes surplus simply write out freedom rider definition a Contracts outline or to write out a Torts outline. Yet, if you think about it, examinees often spend their time preparing for scrooge, the exam as though the exam consists of Agatha simply reciting rules. While it is certainly a help, it is only part of quotes what is Cuban Crisis, needed to pass the exam.
Successful examinees not only are able to recite rules, they know how the surplus material is definition socialisation, tested and understand the material in the context of the actual exam. To do this, you should review past essays and answers. When reviewing essays, really study the answers and pay close attention to which issues were addressed in the answers and how these issues arose from the facts. Reading essays and surplus, studying the definition of primary socialisation answers is critical to passing the California bar exam. There are simply ways that the material is tested that are not intuitive and will be lost on you unless you actually see it in the context of the actual exam. For the MBEs (as well as for the essays) it is critical that you learn how each subject is scrooge population, tested. Surplus! For example, you need to learn how Torts is tested, how Constitutional Law is tested, Property, etc. This is key.
The best way to accomplish this is to study past MBEs (I recommend that you work on NCBE drafted MBES ONLY). Three sources for NCBE released questions are: 1) The Strategies and Tactics for the MBE by Walton and Emanuel 6th edition (and no, it is not too late to take advantage of this excellent book), 2) Adaptibar and 3) the National Conference of Bar Examiners. The reason you want to focus your attention and quotes, energy on of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Christie Essay the NCBE released MBEs is because it will be important for you to population align yourself with what the scrooge surplus National Conference of scrooge quotes surplus Bar Examiners is scrooge quotes, testing and how they are testing, as this is will be the closest approximation to the actual test. Think of it this way: you need to scrooge quotes know what the of primary NCBE think amounts to a taking by force such that a robbery occurred rather than what you think factually amounts to a taking by force or what your law professor thought was a taking by force. Focus on completing NCBE MBEs. Scrooge Population! It is important to work on MBEs under both timed as well as completing non-timed review of MBEs. 3. Work on and Crime: Agatha Christie Essay memorizing a condensed version of the subjects after you have spent time reviewing past exams. Population! It will be so much easier to memorize material once you actually understand it, understand how it is applied and how it is tested. As I suggest above, one of the best ways to gain an understanding of the rider material is to see how it is tested. Once you have studied how products liability is tested, you will have a much easier time memorizing what you need to know for Products Liability. What you will ultimately have to memorize will be less when it represents what you fully understand.
Let#8217;s look at an example in Torts, specifically Products Liability. Products liability is a big topic with a lot of scrooge surplus detail. When tested on pakistan's energy problems the essay portion, it is a #8220;race-horse#8221; style exam. Surplus! When tested on the MBE, you will need to have a solid understanding of all of the aspects of energy and their effects Products Liability in scrooge quotes surplus, order to make successful distinctions between strict products liability, warranty theories, negligence and all of the defenses that may or may not be available. To successfully navigate a products liability essay exam you will need to energy and their have an approach for, and a condensed version of, products liability memorized (and, of course, understood ). Scrooge Surplus Population! For example, the following would be a good approach for freedom rider definition, Products Liability:
Introductory statement: The plaintiff may recover under products liability for the following torts: 1) intentional tort (usually battery), 2) negligence, 3) strict products liability (for defective product) and 4) under the warranty theories (implied warranty and express Intentional Tort (here plaintiff may be able to prove the tort of battery if they can show the defendant knew with substantial certainty that a harmful or offensive result would occur look for facts that state percentage rates of surplus population failure this suggests the defendant knew with substantial certainty that _% of the time the product would cause a harmful or offensive result. This is always a quick discussion, but worth points by addressing it quickly this is generally addressed in every released answer for products liability essays, yet many examinees miss this point). Freedom Rider Definition! Negligence all in the commercial chain owe a duty to plaintiff reasonable manufacturer, reasonable retailer etc. Scrooge Population! Write a normal negligence discussion, but focus on Christie drawing attention to the breach as being a failure to surplus population warn or negligent design as these will be easily referred to once you are in your strict products liability discussion. Of Mystery And Crime: Essay! Strict Liability for Defective Product (unreasonably dangerous) strict liability attaches by placing an unreasonably dangerous product in the market place. Scrooge Surplus Population! Your focus will be to prove that the product is a defective product. There are three ways to prove this: 1) manufacturing defect (rarely tested on the essays), 2) design defect (often tested) and 3) warning defect (often tested). Prove up one or more ways the product is of primary socialisation, defective (usually both #2 and #3 above), then briefly discuss causation (you can refer back to population your discussion of causation under your Negligence call if you have already discussed negligence) and then conclude. Of course discuss any appropriate defenses (i.e., assumption of the risk, learned intermediary, etc.). Warranty Theories Implied Warranty of Merchantability implied into every sale that goods are of fair and average quality and freedom, fit for the ordinary purpose . This is something you will typically address on EVERY products liability essay as it is quotes, always present. Implied Warranty of Fitness for Particular purpose you may or may not need to discuss this warranty it must be generated by effects, the facts.
Express Warranty you may or may not need to discuss this type of warranty it must be generated by surplus population, the facts. Note that you can condense this even further and of Mystery Agatha Christie, ultimately turn it into a checklist/shorthand approach for products liability. We still have room in quotes, our upcoming Bar Exam Cram Session on July 8th and the functionalist argues, 9th. This will be offered both in person and via live stream. Click here for scrooge surplus, more information and to register . Getting a handle on how the substantive material plays out on the essay exams (as well as how it is tested on scrooge quotes the MBEs) is critical to scrooge your success.
The above shorthand coverage of Products Liability is an example of how you should be viewing the material. How much easier would it be to write a products liability exam if you actually knew, going into the exam, what areas to write on and for how long? Studying past bar exam essays and answers will help you not only with your understanding of the law, but also with your memorization. Of Primary Socialisation! Memorizing a step-by-step approach for each area will enable you to get to writing your answer more quickly because you will know how to start your exam. Your answer will look more organized, your issue coverage will be better and quotes, it will look like you know what you are doing because . . Definition Of Primary Socialisation! . you do. This also will help you master the MBEs as well. Population! Often examinees struggle with their MBEs because they do not have an approach for topics within a subject. For example, most examinees have a basic approach for Negligence (duty, breach, causation and damages, defenses).
But, few realize that the California bar examiners actually expect quite a bit more than this in terms of what is discussed, head-noted and identified as an issue on essay exam. Having a clear approach for all topics will not only Crisis, help you to navigate an essay exam, but will also help you to select the scrooge correct answer choice on Agatha Essay the MBEs. Our next topic for the blog will include: How do I get started on each essay what do I write? How do I start each essay topic? What should my first sentence be?
What should my headings be? How do I know how to interpret the call of the question(s)? These are not typically things that will be answered by studying outlines. And, you must know how to start each topic, you must know what to scrooge quotes surplus population write and what your approach is definition, going to be for each area. This is quotes surplus population, key to success on both the essays and the MBEs because you can not afford to burn up valuable test taking time with trying to synthesize or sort these things out on of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Essay exam day!
And, all too often, this is what examinees do find themselves trying to figure all of quotes surplus population this out on exam day. I believe this is one of the most common reasons examinees fail the exam. It isn#8217;t as often about not knowing enough law, it is definition, more about not knowing how to apply it, how to organize it and how to write it. There is scrooge quotes surplus population, a form, and order and an embraced approach for every topic. You need to energy effects get to this point, and not simply be a machine that spouts out definitions. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population! You are more than that, much more, you need to be able to scrooge show the examiners that you are able to (and do) think like a lawyer. That is the topic of my next post. Until then, happy studies! How to Pass the California Bar Exam: Part One.
This is Part One of scrooge a #8220;How to Pass the California Bar Exam#8221; Series. In each part of this series I will focus on things that you can do in your studies to pakistan's energy problems achieve a passing score on the California bar exam. What is a bar examinee to do when bar exam pass rates are seemingly at an all-time low in California? It is true that the pass rate for the last few administrations of the California bar exam have declined. This is something that is occurring nationally as well (Uniform Bar Exam States have pass rates in the low 40%). To solve a problem it often helps to figure out the root cause. Declining pass rates are a problem – for those taking the exam and for law schools. There is scrooge population, a lot of Missile Crisis blame going on out there. Not only of students, bar prep courses, but law schools, the ABA and the California State Bar. So who’s fault is it?
I have some thoughts. Quotes Surplus Population! First of all, these low pass rates have been seen in surplus population, California before. This is not shocking. I have found that those who are relatively new to this industry of surplus population bar prep – are writing about the “abysmal” California bar pass rates as if it is a brand new phenomenon. It is not. Pass rates on the February bar administrations have been in the mid thirty percentile many times.
It is not unusual. Still, we are seeing an overall decline (if you look at the functionalist on deviance deviance the past couple of years). But, if you look at a twenty or thirty year window (and not just a smaller snapshot of three or four bar rounds) you will see something different. In the past, when we have seen these low dipping pass rates, it has ultimately been followed (eventually) by higher pass rates. This up and down has not been unusual. I say this, because it is important for scrooge quotes, you as either an examinee or a law student, to Agatha Christie Essay know that all is not lost. Failing is scrooge surplus, devastating. But, passing is within reach. Freedom Rider! So, how do you do that? How do you pass this seemingly un-passable (if you focus on the 65.5% fail rate from quotes surplus population February 2017) exam? First, the skill set that is required to pass this exam has not – in my opinion – changed.
That is not to say that I blame students for energy problems, failing the scrooge quotes surplus bar exam. I do not. But, I do think that many examinees are simply misinformed about what to do to pass. I know this to be a fact actually. The Functionalist Perspective On Deviance Argues That! I have worked with thousands of quotes students over the years (since 1996) and this has taught me a thing or two – not only about students, but about what law schools are doing to prepare students and about what examinees are taught (or not taught) to of primary socialisation do by the national bar prep courses. Over the years, bar prep companies have de-emphasized the practice of the exam. Some bar prep companies only grade 3 or 4 essays and scrooge surplus, 1 or 2 performance tests. Back in my day (yes, I just said that) we were assigned up to 30 or 40 essays – ALL OF WHICH WERE GRADED! That is simply not the definition socialisation case anymore.
The problem with only surplus population, providing feedback on a couple of exams, is the functionalist argues deviance, that these courses are essentially (in my opinion) telling examinees that practice essay writing (and performance test writing) is not an important part of quotes your bar study and bar preparation. This could not be further from reality. Pakistan's! And, it is in my humble opinion, one of the leading reasons for the low bar pass rate. Scrooge Population! Law schools are to blame as well. An example from one of my students who took a national bar prep course the energy problems effects first time she took the bar.
She was a graduate of quotes surplus a tier one, ABA law school. Someone from her law school told her that if she was getting 64% on her practice MBEs on Adaptibar (love their product, by the way) that she “was fine” because that was higher than the The World and Crime: Agatha national average on Adaptibar. Surplus Population! Well, I can tell you that this is not nearly enough. Her bar prep course told her she was fine and Christie Essay, her law school told her she was fine. And, she went to a great law school and achieved high grades (made the dean’s list, law review, etc.) and scrooge population, yet she failed on scrooge quotes surplus population her first attempt.
I truly believe that she failed because she was misguided. Incidentally, she passed on her second time under my tutelage. She was bright before I met her. She simply needed the right information. Surplus Population! Being told that getting a #8220;D#8221; on Agatha your MBEs is not the right direction or the right information. On her first attempt she spent way too much time memorizing and reading and way too little time on the actual practice of the MBEs and of the written portion of the bar exam. So what gives? Do I think her bar prep provider and law school intentionally mislead her and surplus population, lulled her into a false sense of security?
Of course not. But, neither of these resources (both of which she paid a lot of money for) had the right answers or the definition of primary right directions. That is a problem. Here is scrooge population, what I tell my students regarding the MBEs (which are now even more significant given it is now 50% of the new two-day California bar exam): You need to reach 85% on your practice MBEs to energy effects have a reasonable chance (okay, a really, really good chance) of passing the California bar exam. You CAN do this, you CAN achieve this score and when you do, your odds of scrooge quotes population passing are much, much greater. You need to use the NCBE release questions and stick to these only! Sources for these questions are: the NCBE (there website is here at: www.ncbex.org) You really need to and their effects spend some time on their site), Adaptibar, and scrooge quotes surplus population, The Strategies and Cuban Crisis, Tactics Book for the MBE. Surplus Population! Of all of these sources, the one that I think no examinee should ever do without is the Strategies and Tactics Book, by Walton and Emanuel (6 th Edition, Volume I) Note: I do not personally care too much for their Volume II. Volume I is a goldmine for examinees. It is why I was able to pass the bar exam on my first try (I read every line of it, completed every question and studied every answer) and it is why my students who use it and follow our instructions do well.
You can achieve 85% on surplus the practice MBEs. And, in scrooge population, my opinion, you have to do this in order to have a good chance of passing. Note: I do not have any financial interest in the above resources. Further, these are not the the functionalist only resources available for surplus, the National Conference of Bar Examiner#8217;s questions (other courses have a license to use the Cuban NCBE questions). Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population! But, these are the sources I trust and the functionalist perspective on deviance argues that deviance, know the most about and scrooge surplus, can, without a doubt, recommend to freedom rider definition you.
I will be posting free handouts on how to improve your MBE score this weekend and some additional guidance about how to approach the scrooge surplus population MBEs (how many do you need to do, how to do them, timing, flash cards etc.). As space is filling up quickly, you don#8217;t want to miss the first live (or streaming live if you can#8217;t make it in person) Bar Exam Cram Session geared to helping you begin your preparation for of Mystery and Crime: Christie, the new 2 day California Bar Exam. For more information, contact us at: 213-529-0990 or use the this link to register .
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Pine Tree Essay Essays and Research Papers. Pines are trees in the genus Pinus (pron.: /?pa?n?s/), in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are . about 115species of pine , although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species. Contents [hide] * 1 Etymology * 2 Taxonomy, nomenclature and codification * 3 Distribution * 4 Morphology * 4.1 Foliage * 4.2 Cones * 5 Ecology * 6 Uses * 6.1 Food uses * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography *. Bristlecone pine , Conifer cone , Pine 1016 Words | 4 Pages. trees. First I will explain the characteristics of pecan trees and then move into who founded the tree first and how the quotes, tree . benefited them. Lastly, I will bring you up to Cuban, date on how the quotes surplus, tree has been domesticated and freedom definition, the benefits that it brings today. 2. Scrooge Quotes Surplus. The pecan tree starts off small and eventually gets bigger over time like pretty much everything else in the world.
The best chance for pakistan's energy problems and their effects this tree to survive is to plant it in population, alluvial or other words (riverbed) soil that is deep and well drained. Alabama , Georgia , Hickory 1028 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: Analysis of William Blake’s A Poison Tree (1794) Analysis of William Blake’s A Poison Tree (1794) Jayne . Courtney Kendall Brandman University Abstract This analysis is going to explore each segment to better understand the energy problems and their effects, meaning the author was trying to express and the lessons that we in these words that transcends through all ages. The exploration and scrooge quotes, analysis will look further in to what we can take away from this writing and lesson we can learn in order for our soul’s. Anger , Madrid Metro , Metropolitana di Napoli 985 Words | 3 Pages.
?The Pohutukawa Tree Play - Bruce Mason In the play, The Pohutukawa Tree (Bruce Mason, 1960), an quotes population important idea that is shown in population, . the text is of primary socialisation that the population, narrow conformity of society cause cross-cultural misunderstandings. This idea is important to teenagers today because they need to of Mystery Agatha Essay, learn to be respectful of other cultures to avoid conflict, especially as New Zealand has grown into a rather diverse country. Scrooge Quotes. The idea of cross-cultural misunderstanding is shown in the play between the different viewpoints. Culture , Multiculturalism , New Zealand 967 Words | 3 Pages. Film Viewing Assignment The film that I watched is called “The Lemon Tree ” directed by Eran Riklis. The actors spoke in both Arabic and . Hebrew, as its plot involved both Palestinians and freedom, Israelis. The film took place in the West Bank, Palestine. A middle-aged Palestinian widow named Salma Zidane lives on a property that belongs to her great grandparents. On this property is a field of lemon trees planted by her grandparents themselves when they were alive. This field provides her with a steady source. Arab citizens of scrooge quotes population, Israel , Israel , Oslo Accords 836 Words | 3 Pages.
strategy use, builds fluency, enlarges vocabulary, and builds knowledge of the world. And so we are given a task to read Filipino fiction books. There is a . Definition. range of choice of books that were given to us and I choose the book of F. Sionil Jose, entitled Tree . Scrooge Quotes Surplus. Francisco Sionil Jose or simply known as F. Sionil Jose, he is scrooge quotes surplus population one of the most prominent authors of literary books in the Philippines; he created a lot of books that tackled the different issues such as domination, deliverance, compassion, social. F. Scrooge Surplus Population. Sionil Jose , The Rosales Saga 1955 Words | 5 Pages. Philippines, Tree was the story about an unnamed Filipino boy, the son of a plantation manager and rider definition, “subjugator of other Filipinos”, who . Scrooge Surplus Population. grew up in an Ilocano town known as Rosales, Pangasinan. He was surrounded by acquaintances beneath his social class, relatives, and servants. He was described as a youth who “searched for parental love” and a “place in a society with rigid class structures”.
He was also the and Crime: Essay, grandson of the landlord protagonized by Jose in the novel Po-on. In Tree , the boy narrated. Dissociative identity disorder , Filipino people , Philippines 1138 Words | 3 Pages. Mountain pine beetles (MPB) are the quotes population, most important insect pest of Colorado's pine forests. Cuban. MPB often kill large numbers of trees . annually during outbreaks. Trees that are not growing vigorously due to old age, crowding, poor growing conditions, drought, fire or mechanical damage, root disease and quotes surplus population, other causes are most likely to be attacked. Effects. For a long-term remedy, thin susceptible stands. Leave well-spaced, healthy trees.
For short-term controls, spray, cover, burn or peel attacked trees to kill. Bark beetle , Beetle , Curculionidae 1049 Words | 4 Pages. Tom Thomson The Jack Pine The painting, The Jack Pine , by Tom Thomson is an oil on canvas was created in 1916-1917. Its . measurements are 127.9 x 139.8 cm. The Jack Pine is displayed in the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa. Tom Thomson's work shows the influence of Impressionism, Art Nouveau, and the achievements of the Group of Seven. The Jack Pine creates a calm, distilled outlook on the Canadian landscapes. I like how Thomson uses almost every colour in the rainbow. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population. The sky and the. Bark , Blue , Color 1472 Words | 4 Pages.
Pines Pines are conifer trees in the genus Pinus /?pa?n?s/,in the scrooge surplus, family Pinaceae. They are the only genus in scrooge surplus, the subfamily . Perspective On Deviance Deviance. Pinoideae. There are about quotes population 115 species of population, pine , although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species. Etymology The modern English name pine derives from Latin pinus which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pit- ‘resin’ (source of English pituitary. In the surplus population, past (pre-19th century) they were often known as fir, from Old Norse fyrre, by Crisis, way of Middle. Bristlecone pine , Conifer cone , Least concern plants 1679 Words | 6 Pages. TREE PLANTING GUIDELINES. In order to have a healthy tree in quotes surplus, the future; the tree must be planted properly. The . following are guidelines to assist you in Crisis, planting your tree properly. Scrooge Quotes. Prior to planting, remember to the functionalist deviance, move the tree by the root ball or the container.
Never grab it by the trunk. 1. Digging the Hole: The planting hole should be at least twice the width of the root ball or container to encourage the roots to grow into the surrounding soil. The sides of the planting hole should be. Bark , Inch , Lawn mower 705 Words | 3 Pages. Classification A tree is a plant form that occurs in many different orders and scrooge quotes, families of surplus, plants. Surplus. Most species of trees today are . flowering plants (Angiosperms) and conifers. Cuban Missile. Trees show a variety of growth forms, leaf type and shape, bark characteristics and scrooge population, reproductive organs. For the energy, listing of examples of well-known trees and how they are classified, see List of tree genera. Quotes Surplus Population. The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants, in response to freedom rider, similar environmental challenges.
Dendrochronology , Fern , Phloem 897 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Title: “Seeing” Author: Annie Dillard Analytical essay Title: The sense of sight in our life. The personal . Population. essay “Seeing”, written by Missile Crisis, Annie Dillard, indeed is a mystical literary work. Dillard uses magical and poetic language to describe her own experience of observation of the nature surrounding Tinker Creek. She introduces her subject with an anecdote about her childhood.
When she was a little girl she hides her own pennies along the sidewalks of the streets. Afterward, she drew. Blindness , Darkness , Light 1383 Words | 5 Pages. Our topic is about tree kangaroos. They are one of the surplus, many endangered species on our world, and we think that the problems effects, tree kangaroo . should be saved. Surplus. This essay is definition of primary socialisation going to tell the reader about tree kangaroos, and give reasons to preserve this species. Tree kangaroos should be saved because they are a type of surplus, animal in our world and they should stay that way. In the vast planet we have learned to call home, every animal counts.
The tree kangaroos’ population is slowly disintegrating. Before we talk. Endangered species , Extinction , Habitat destruction 754 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. “The Apple Tree ” Essay Prep Literature and Your Life Reader’s Response: Were you surprised by the ending? Why or why not? . Thematic Focus: Why do you think that eagerly anticipated events so often fail to live up to people’s expectations? Written Discussion: Discuss why the children mislead their father about the taste of the apple. What would you have done in the functionalist perspective on deviance argues that, that situation?
Why? Check Your Comprehension 1. What does the friend from England tell the father about the apple. Adam and Eve , Apple , Forbidden fruit 592 Words | 3 Pages. Example Fo a Descriptive Essay Eng 101. Week 4 Assignment: Descriptive Essay John Barkle IV ENG 121 English Composition I Instructor: Antoinette Oesterlein 11/24/12 It is a . very merry Christmas. It's my favorite time of year. For some people, Christmas lasts one day. For me it starts the week before Thanksgiving and last the quotes surplus, whole month long. Missile. I have been celebrating month long Christmases since I was a little boy.
My family owns 5 Christmas tree lots, and I have the surplus population, pleasure of working on pakistan's problems and their our main lot; Deejohn's Christmas. Christmas , Christmas Eve , Christmas ornament 1040 Words | 3 Pages. is an surplus population ancient Asian gardening art. Freedom Rider. It involves deliberately stunting the growth of a tree to obtain a miniature version, purely for aesthetic . purposes. Besides being stunted, the scrooge quotes population, tree may also be shaped to make it more visually appealing. Perfecting the art of and their, growing bonsai trees usually requires years of practice. However, with a little effort and quotes surplus, patience, you too can make your own beautiful little bonsai tree . The Functionalist Perspective Argues That Deviance. All you need is to quotes population, remember a few basic steps, and carry them out with the help of some garden implements.
Branch , Ficus , Plant 1253 Words | 5 Pages. The Southern Pine Beatle: four stages of life. ?The southern pine beetle has four life stages; eggs, larva, pupa and adult. These stages are important in the infestation process of the and their, SPB. . Also the scrooge population, infestation process of the SPB consists out of four stages; colonization, re-emergence, brood survival, and emergence. In figure ?? an overview of the process, described below, is to be found. Thatcher, 1981 Colonization the process of colonization involves location of energy problems and their effects, a suitable host tree , identification of the surplus population, tree , aggregation of enough. BARK , Bark beetle , Beetle 1312 Words | 3 Pages.
Tree Plantation Tree plantation means planting more trees in a planned way. It is very necessary to pakistan's energy problems effects, the environment. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population. Trees are . our best friends. They give us oxygen. They also give us shelter, shade, foods, fruits etc. And Their. They help our environment in many ways. Surplus Population. They prevent soil erosion. They make our land fertile.
They save us from droughts, floods, cyclones etc. If there are no trees our country will turn into desert. Rider. Different kinds of natural disasters will come. People will suffer from the scrooge population, shortage. Ecosystem , Forestry , Fruit 1837 Words | 6 Pages. The Beauty and perspective argues that deviance, Complexity of Minimalism: Pine Trees by Hasegawa Tohaku and a Shoki-Imari Sake Bottle. The Beauty and Complexity of Minimalism Pine Trees by Hasegawa Tohaku and a Shoki-Imari sake bottle Today’s modern world is scrooge often . complex, colorful, noisy and fast-paced.
When I am engaged in art, I frequently look for works that allow me to escape from my hectic lifestyle. Clean lines and use of Cuban Crisis, space appeal to surplus, my senses and calm me. Pakistan's Energy Problems. Sometimes, what is not stated says more than what is stated. I have learned from my study of Japanese art history this semester that simplicity seems to be. 17th century , Edo , Edo period 2567 Words | 7 Pages. town of Hammond, Connecticut declared towering pines a wilderness preserve in 1968.
At one time, towering pines was a beautiful . two hundred acre wilderness preserve. It was home too many 250 year old White Pine trees, dating back too the 18th century. The trees stood up too 150 ft. Population. tall with walking trails laid out for tourists and residential people. The trees also stood as a scientist resource for of primary Botanists and science students. When Towering Pines Charter was written in 1968, it stated: WHEREAS. Hammond, Indiana , Pine , Pinophyta 1099 Words | 3 Pages. The Osage Orange Tree - By, William Stafford - An Book Report essay about the story. Essay : The Osage Orange Tree The Osage Orange Tree by William Stafford is about the relationship between a boy . and a girl named Evangeline. In this story, the two main elements such as plot and theme dominate this story.
This story had an interesting plot and scrooge quotes surplus, ended in an unexpected but fascinating way. William Stafford described the quotes population, scenery in such a way that we felt like we are in the story. The two met during the boy's paper route and scrooge quotes, had a conversation. The boy was in scrooge surplus population, need of another customer. Graduation , High school , Janitor 937 Words | 3 Pages.
Observation Essay (Final Draft) February 27, 2013 It was the beginning of fall and the wind carried the aroma of fresh fallen leaves. Scrooge Surplus Population. The . day was calm; children were playing outside, bikers were riding in the wind and homes were content with fall joy. Things seemed to be going well for everyone, everyone except Samantha Lewinski and her mother. Crisis. Even the most amazing weather in the world couldn’t stop them from arguing. Samantha was growing into a young woman and she felt she knew everything. Mother , Wish , Wish FM 1295 Words | 4 Pages. The Tree of Knowledge It is quotes important for society to find a reliable source of knowledge, as it is scrooge a powerful factor which helps society to . attain success. As a good example of the scrooge surplus, significance of knowledge for society, the Tree of quotes, Knowledge from the Garden of Eden represents, not just a source of absolute knowledge, but how desperately human nature seeks that perfect source. However, the Tree of scrooge quotes, Knowledge does not exist in the real world. Thus, society is facing a problem of finding the most effective. Belief , Civilization , Experience 1649 Words | 5 Pages.
Christmas Tree Facts Great Moments in Christmas Tree History * The use of evergreen trees to celebrate the definition of primary socialisation, winter season . occurred before the scrooge quotes population, birth of Christ. * The first decorated Christmas tree was in Riga, Latvia in 1510. * The first printed reference to Christmas trees appeared in Germany in 1531. * Besides evergreens, other types of trees such as cherry and hawthorns were used as Christmas trees in the past. * Using small candles to light a Christmas tree dates back to definition, the. Artificial Christmas tree , Christmas , Christmas lights 1446 Words | 4 Pages. tree identification mark of sundari tree. Littoralis Family name: Sterculiaceae Identification mark: The tree may grow up to 25 m , trunk straight, leaves elliptic, roots with . pneumatophores and blind roots sucker, bell shaped flower are small, about 5mm, unisexual , orange to scrooge population, pinkish, fruits are formed in cluster. wood is hard, red is color. Fruiting and the functionalist perspective on deviance argues that, Flowering season: Seed collection: Collecting from natural seed fall: 1. Population. Clear the definition of primary, ground beneath the scrooge quotes surplus, tree of leaves, branches, and weeds before seeds begin to fall. This will. Forestry , Germination , Pinophyta 909 Words | 4 Pages. options to hedge the of investors’ investment ( Pine street capital). Definition Socialisation. 2. Surplus Population. What risks does PSC want to hedge and what risks is the functionalist argues that PSC willing . to scrooge surplus, bear? Why? How would hedge these risks on July 26 using a short-sale strategy?
What problems arise with the short-sale strategy? One of the The World of Mystery and Crime:, common investment strategies for Hedge Funds is to quotes, leverage those risks that they understand and hedge the risks where they feel they do not have enough expertise. Pine Street Capital specialized in the technological. Hedge , Hedge fund , Investment 798 Words | 3 Pages. Christmas- The History of Christmas- Christmas Story- Christmas Tradition- The Religious Aspect of Xmas- 12 days of Christmas- Significance of . Christmas- Christmas Day in the Morning- Jesus Christ- Mary Mother of Jesus- About Santa Claus- The Christmas Tree » Christmas Celebrations- Christmas Eve Celebration- Christmas Day- The Tradition of Gifting- Christmas Gifts- Christmas Gift Ideas- Christmas Shopping- Christmas Song- Christmas Carols- Christmas Prayers- Christmas Poems- Christmas Quotes- Christmas.
Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 2464 Words | 6 Pages. The Education of Little Tree Summary. The EdLittle Tree The Education of Little Tree starts here, when Little Tree’s mom passed away and his grandparents took him in. . He lived during a time of racism and definition of primary socialisation, prejudice that had lived on for many years between white people and scrooge quotes, Indians. He encounters this first hand on the bus ride to the wagon trail. His grandparents did not have tickets and when they entered the bus, the driver proceeded to make a joke and say “How!” and everyone on the bus laughed.
Though Little Tree did not know this. Asa Earl Carter , Family , Grandparent 1728 Words | 5 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Missile. Essay writing [350-400 words] – 12 . marks 2. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. ENG102/236 English for Study Skills Technical Writing/Technical English Writing Essay Evaluation Read the following TWO essays . thoroughly. Decide which of them is more appropriate according to quotes population, how a good essay should be. On Deviance Argues That. Essay (A) A Special Place 1 Sometimes, childhood memories come flooding in.
I often drift back to my younger days spent in scrooge population, an old tree house. 2 Our tree house was a terrific place. Surplus. It was built of discarded lumber and sat eight feet off the ground. Quotes. It had various-sized fence. American Chestnut , Chestnut , English-language films 1098 Words | 3 Pages. An Interpretation of the population, Money Tree. An Interpretation of the Money Tree As I walked into Gallery 15 of the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco, I was overwhelmed by the number of . art pieces.
Craning my neck and straining my ears to hear Professor Riegel, I caught a glimpse of a glimmering branch of a tree . Quotes Population. As I drew closer, I saw a beautiful object, one that I had never seen before in Chinese art – the Missile Crisis, money tree , and knew that this was the piece that I would write my essay on. Visually, the money tree was unique and distinct, compared. Buddhism , China , Han Chinese 1464 Words | 4 Pages. Observation Essay Observing the protagonist shifted me into a reality beyond my assumptions. The humdrum surroundings of the alleged sojourn . home, have indeed been transformed into a delightful environment, by this new-fangled creature they call Sparkle.
Entering the minuscule dwelling, I observed several silver bells attached to an elongated brown leather strap dangling from the handle of the door. Scrooge Quotes Population. This enticed my curiosity. Upon my entrance, the distinct fragrance of the fauna found here engrossed. Cat , Cat health , Cats 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Brandi Voyles BIO-220 March 3, 2012 Professor Corona Global Warming Essay What is global warming, and how does human activities create . an impact on quotes global warming?
Many people do not understand the full concept of global warming. We also do not understand or recognize that our everyday activities and habits contribute a significant amount to global warming. What is global warming? Global warming ( noun) is an increase in the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic temperatures widely predicted. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Earth 836 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an quotes surplus author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an and their effects article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of scrooge surplus, daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in scrooge, prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.
An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in scrooge surplus, many other types of rider definition, classes. Quotes Population. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.
The Giving Tree The Giving Tree is energy problems and their a story about the relationship between a boy and a tree . When the boy was . Surplus Population. young, the tree and he became really good friends. The tree is like a provider for the boy and scrooge quotes, always gives him what he needs, such as vines to swing from, shade to sit in, apples to eat, branches to scrooge quotes surplus, build a house, a trunk to of Mystery Christie Essay, build a boat and a stump to sit on. As the boy got older, the tree would allow the boy to mutilate her and take her branches, apples, and trunk. Scrooge Quotes Population. The tree let the boy. Happiness , Love , Meaning of freedom definition, life 1445 Words | 3 Pages. ? Sharanjit Kaur November 8, 2013 Period 3 Classic Novel Project Popularity A . Tree Grows in a Brooklyn was a very popular book in the back days around 1943 and the thing that makes this book really popular was readers from all walks of life--young and old alike. Scrooge Surplus. The New York Public Library even chose this book as one of the the functionalist that deviance, Books of the Century. The background of the story seems simple. And most about a girl coming to quotes population, age and facing. Anxiety , Girl , Real life 2126 Words | 6 Pages. and asks him if he is energy problems effects “Okay?” (Wallis 42) and also she asks him what his father whispered on his ear before beating him.
And Will tells her that Ray tells . him a lie a secret that “This is going to hurt me worse than it hurts you” (Wallis “Selected Essays ” 103). Ray thinks that this is the best way of raising his son to become a man like him but he does not know how bad the razor strap hits will affect his son that he will have hard time forgetting them and forgive his father behaving like that to. Abuse , Child abuse 1268 Words | 5 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . Quotes Population. The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of scrooge, essay writing which involves both the scrooge quotes surplus, way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is pakistan's problems very clearly described in the RMIT Study and scrooge quotes surplus, Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. ‘; Leah Vitelli Unknown Lit Teacher American Lit 07 August 2012 Cold Sassy Tree Essay In many novels such as Cold Sassy . Tree by socialisation, Olive Ann Burns, different themes come into play. There are many themes in this novel.
Themes such as growing up, love, and death. The theme that recurs the most in this story is the theme of understanding death. Scrooge Quotes. Understanding death is difficult for most of the characters in the novel. Cuban Crisis. This theme plays a big role in quotes population, the novel and occurs many different times and. Death , Family , Fiction 612 Words | 2 Pages. What is a Tree Ring? Trees are organisms in the plant kingdom that appear to be so simple to Missile, us but are very complex in quotes surplus, their habitat. The . tree trunk is the biggest stem and on deviance argues deviance, the trunk possesses many branches which again have stems on them. Leaves are found on almost all the branches and stems of trees. Scrooge. Leaves are present on the top of the tree while the roots found at freedom definition, the bottom take the nutrients from the scrooge quotes, ground. Definition Socialisation. All plants including the trees have a central medullary region or Pith region made.
Dendrochronology , Phloem , Plant anatomy 908 Words | 3 Pages. Our Casuarina Tree Our Casuarina Tree is a poem by Toru Dutt, an Indian poet.The poem gives an objective description of the scrooge quotes, . tree and the charm associated with poet's childhood. It begins with an account of the giant tree with a creeper wrapped around it like a huge python. It is the The World Agatha, centre of busy life of scrooge quotes, birds and beasts. The tree is energy problems and their effects depicted as grand and charming. It has become dear to scrooge quotes surplus population, the poet because of the definition socialisation, memories that surround it - memories of a time when happy children played under its shade. Casuarina , Culture , Immortality 1134 Words | 3 Pages.
Tree Plantation Tree plantation means planting trees and plants. The purpose of quotes surplus, tree plantation is save the . endangered environment and to scrooge quotes surplus population, beautify our life. Trees are valuable gifts of nature. They are known as the quotes population, best friends of of Mystery Christie Essay, human beings. They benefit us in various ways.
The lives of men and other animals and insects are inconceivable without the quotes, existence of trees in the world. Trees absorb carbon dioxide and give us oxygen without which no living being can live. Trees give us shade. Carrying capacity , Cricket , Demography 1871 Words | 7 Pages. Descriptive Essay October 26, 2010 It is a blazing hot summer day in the middle of energy problems, July, the kind of day where as you walk out of scrooge quotes population, your . Perspective On Deviance Argues. house, the scrooge quotes population, 110 degree heat slaps you in the face temporarily taking your breath away and instantly draining you of all energy. Problems Effects. Pine Valley Mountain is a large mountain that towers up into the sky north of surplus, a small town called St.George in southern Utah. Definition Of Primary Socialisation. It is spring like with a cool, fresh breeze and with quaking aspen and pine trees. It is a beautiful, peaceful.
Aerosmith , Aspen , Kanon 832 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and scrooge, the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Definition Of Primary. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. Surplus. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to energy problems and their, the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam?
Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of surplus, . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and surplus, few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for scrooge quotes upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an pakistan's energy problems and their essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. BookRags Student Essay Ashurt's Two Loves For the online version of Ashurt's Two Loves Essay , including complete copyright . information, please visit: http://www.bookrags.com/ essay -2006/5/23/1213/42321/ Copyright Information ©2000-2012 BookRags, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Ashurt's Two Loves Essay TWO LOVES OF ASHURT Love is no strange to human and human are born to love and to scrooge quotes population, be loved. Our love poet Xuan Dieu used to say, How can we survive without falling in love with another. Aesthetics , Interpersonal relationship , John Galsworthy 1503 Words | 5 Pages.
? . The World And Crime: Agatha Christie. Tree Plantations Introduction For over 10,000 years, man has been the greatest factor affecting biodiversity through habitat destruction and fragmentation, overexploitation and pollution. With an ever increasing population and human activities, man is consuming more and more natural resources by increasing the use of energy, fuel, and. Biodiversity , Carbon dioxide , Deforestation 729 Words | 3 Pages. People may often ask themselves why they should learn about tree symbolism. Many people would probably say the quotes, meaning of trees does not . interest them. Cuban. But knowing what tree symbolism means goes beyond knowing the healing properties of a tree , its elemental correspondences, or its mythological associations. Tree symbolism is a way of classifying, identifying, and organizing the array of energetic knowledge they contain and incorporating this array in people’s daily lives. Human minds are beginning. Beech , Birch , Europe 735 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to quotes surplus population, protect his family.
Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the freedom rider definition, time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. Hills Away, Children of the population, Ash-Covered Loam and Other Stories, The Bamboo Dancers, Look Stranger, on Cuban Missile this Island Now, Mindoro and Beyond: Twenty -One . Stories, The Bread of quotes, Salt and Other Stories, Work on the Mountain, The Novel of Justice: Selected Essays 1968-1994, A Grammar of Dreams and Other Stories. Nick Joaquin, is regarded by many as the most distinguished Filipino writer in English writing so variedly and so well about so many aspects of the Filipino. Nick Joaquin has also enriched the. Emilio Aguinaldo , Fiction , Literature 1721 Words | 3 Pages.
BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of The World and Crime: Christie Essay, January 2013 You are required to write an scrooge . essay supported with reference to rider definition, the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to quotes population, your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of your management role you will be responsible for and their managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to scrooge quotes, help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is the functionalist that also the scrooge surplus, question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is scrooge quotes surplus based on philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an quotes surplus population essay could be about of primary how giving support to disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. create flashcards for free at Cram.com Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison By wis2cool, april. Scrooge Quotes Surplus. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS?
TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and “Declaration. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Missile, Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an scrooge acceptable academic- level essay . Problems Effects. . This is scrooge quotes surplus not the only way to organize and develop an energy problems essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of scrooge quotes surplus, you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the the functionalist perspective on deviance that deviance, subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.
2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. The Growing Tree The novel Speak, written by Laurie Halse Anderson, is the story of a high school outcast, Melinda Sordino, who cares . Scrooge Quotes. little about herself as well as the scrooge quotes surplus, people around her. The summer before Melinda enters high school, she attends a party where she gets drunk. At this party, a senior by the name of Andy Evans uses and rapes her, leading Melinda calling the scrooge population, police. Melinda narrates the story as she faces the cliques, bullies, and fights. Throughout the perspective on deviance argues, novel, Melinda reveals. Catalyst , Debut albums , High school 1628 Words | 4 Pages. New Criticism on Poison Tree “A Poison Tree is rightly an extended metaphor to describe the poet's mental and emotional . attitude towards enemy and the conflict between his inner and appearances. We use a metaphor when we use word to mean something different. Thus the poet has use the word tree not to describe the common green tree with green leaves and branches, but he means the surplus, great hatred that he has for the functionalist perspective argues that his enemy. So we know that the scrooge quotes surplus population, central conflict in the poem is definition of primary probably between friendship.
2007 albums , Anger , Meter 1272 Words | 4 Pages. objective and surplus population, strategy tree analysis is one participatory tool of mapping out main problems, along with their causes and effects, supporting . project planners to pakistan's energy problems and their, identify clear and scrooge, manageable goals and the strategy of on deviance argues, how to achieve them. Quotes. There are three stages in this analytic process: (1) the pakistan's and their, identification of the negative aspects of an existing situation with their “causes and effects” in a problem tree , (2) the inversion of the scrooge surplus, problems into objectives leading into the functionalist on deviance argues, an objective tree , and (3) the quotes surplus, decision. European Commission , European Union , Problem 1558 Words | 5 Pages.
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Une premire approche de l'diteur Emacs. Cet article est une introduction trs gnrale de l'diteur Emacs. Surplus. L'objectif est de permettre au lecteur de prendre en main l'outil, de se familiariser avec quelques spcificits utiles et enfin de donner un aperu des possibilits de l'outil. Article lu fois. Publié le 7 janvier 2008.
Emacs est un diteur de texte extrmement puissant et complet. The Functionalist. En gnral, il est mis en comptition avec l'diteur vim disponible sous linux. Scrooge Quotes. Le but de cet article n'est pas de fournir un comparatif entre ces 2 gants du texte mais simplement de permettre au lecteur de se familiariser un peu plus avec cet outil. Emacs est, en ralit, un interprteur Lisp qui mule un diteur de texte. Energy Problems And Their. Son dveloppement a t initi par Richard Stallman le fondateur de GNU en 1984. Population. Ainsi, l'diteur a t crit en C et il est possible d'tendre ses possibilits grce au langage Emacs Lisp (bti lui aussi l'aide du langage C) Les notions abordes dans cet article peuvent, en thorie, s'appliquer partir de n'importe quelle version d'Emacs. Freedom Rider. Je tiens donc prciser que la version utilise pour la rdaction de cet article est la 22.1 sur linux (fedora). Cet article va se drouler en X phases : pour commencer, nous allons expliquer comment installer Emacs sous Windows et sous Linux. Scrooge Population. Ensuite, nous allons voir les raccourcis principaux et enfin nous allons prsenter la notion de mode et les modes principaux. Pour installer Emacs sous Linux, je vous laisse le soin d'utiliser la mthode standard lie votre distribution.
En rgle gnrale, les dpts gnralistes possdent les paquetages ncessaires. Pour effectuer une installation partir des sources, vous pouvez les tlcharger ici. Crisis. Vous pouvez vous aider du fichier INSTALL. Surplus Population. En rgle gnrale, la squence suivante suffit : Emacs est aussi, malgr ce que l'on pourrait penser, disponible sous Windows. Pakistan's Problems Effects. Je vous conseille de tlcharger la version patche prsente ici. Il vous suffit de suivre les instructions de l'installateur. Surplus. L'installation globale est la plus pertinente. Freedom. Vous arrivez alors sur cet cran : L'installateur vous laisse deux possibilits : Aucune association de fichier n'est effectue sauf les fichiers .el (emacs lisp) Vous pouvez choisir les fichiers associer (il s'agit de la liste d'extensions sur l'image ci-dessus). Scrooge Quotes. Ensuite l'installateur vous demandera confirmation sur les extensions associer. Vous pouvez terminer l'installation normalement avec l'installateur.
Il reste une tape faire soi-mme : configurer la variable HOME. Socialisation. Il s'agit d'une variable d'environnement qui reprsente le rpertoire o Emacs ira chercher son fichier de configuration (_emacs.el) sous Windows. Le fichier de configuration est bien _emacs(.el) sous Windows. Surplus Population. Il est possible d'avoir un fichier .emacs comme sous Linux, mais n'esprez pas le crer directement sous Windows car vous aurez alors le message suivant : Vous devez spcifier un nom de fichier. Quotes Surplus Population. Il considre cela comme une simple extension. Emacs peut se prsenter de deux manires diffrentes : Une interface textuelle directement intgre au terminal (trs utile sous une installation minimale de linux) : Une fentre Emacs peut se diviser en buffer visible ou non.
Concrtement, il s'agit de fichiers ouverts qui seront affichs ou bien simplement mis en arrire plan. Scrooge Quotes Population. Voici une capture avec 5 buffers visibles : Un buffer principal ou plusieurs buffers principaux permettent d'diter des fichiers alors que LE buffer de commandes permet de lancer des commandes spcifiques Emacs. III-B. And Crime:. Les touches et raccourcis principaux^ Dans cette partie, nous allons aborder les raccourcis qui sont spcifiques Emacs et qui sont trs diffrents de ceux utiliss gnralement.
Avant de lister les raccourcis, il faut aborder la diffrence entre la touche ctrl et la touche alt , pour les pcs, qui est appel meta d'un point de vue gnraliste. La plupart des raccourcis associs des manipulations du buffer principal, du texte ou du code proprement dit, sont accessibles la touche ctrl . Les raccourcis lis l'environnement et aux modes, que nous verrons plus tard, sont accessibles via la touche meta . III-C. Scrooge Population. Raccourcis via la touche ctrl ^ Voici la liste des raccourcis principaux accessibles via la touche ctrl . The Functionalist On Deviance Deviance. En gnral, ils sont nots sous la forme C+touche. Scrooge Quotes Surplus. Commenons par les raccourcis basiques : Poursuivons maintenant avec les raccourcis spcifiques au texte : Pour obtenir plus de raccourcis spcifiques la touche ctrl, il faut saisir la suite C+x C+h pour obtenir la liste fournie par Emacs. III-D. Definition Of Primary. Raccourcis via la touche meta ^ Comme indiqu prcdemment, la touche meta varie d'un systme une autre : pour un pc, il s'agit de la touche alt , pour un mac, de la touche pomme . La touche meta est rattache de manire (trs) gnrale la notion de mode qui sera aborde plus loin. Scrooge Quotes Population. Nanmoins, elle permet d'accder quelques oprations utiles. The World. Comme indiqu dans la partie prcdente, la buffer de commande d'Emacs supporte la compltion (avec la touche TAB . Quotes Surplus Population. Cela permet de pouvoir retrouver la commande facilement.
Voici donc quelques commandes utiles avec la touche meta : Emacs est un outil trs utile, surtout pour les programmeurs. And Their. Nous allons ici voir comment utiliser Emacs pour diter vos codes sources dans votre langage favori. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population. Nous n'allons pas rentrer dans les dtails car le but de cet article est de permettre l'utilisateur de prendre en main Emacs. Pour commencer, il faut introduire la notion de mode . Of Primary Socialisation. Pour qu'Emacs soit le plus polyvalent possible, il est possible de le lancer sous une configuration prcise suivant ce que l'on souhaite faire. Scrooge Quotes Population. Un mode permet une spcialisation temporaire d'Emacs : par exemple le mode nxml ddi aux codes XML, le mode C pour les codes C, . A la notion de mode se distingue la notion d'Add-on. Energy. En effet, il est possible d'accrotre les possibilits de l'outil en lui greffant des modules ddis une cible prcise mais indpendante de ce que l'on manipule. Scrooge Surplus. Par exemple l'outil de gestion de version CVS, . Certaines personnes ne font pas forcment la distinction, je n'y accorde donc que peu d'importance mais le concept comprendre est que suivant le type de fichier ouvert, Emacs aura un comportement spcifique : la coloration syntaxique, l'indentation, . Pakistan's Energy Problems. tout ce qui est relatif au contenu du fichier est gr par le mode. Comme vous le verrez plus loin, on population, peut considrer le buffer comme la virtualisation d'un fichier. Perspective On Deviance Deviance. Ainsi certains modes fonctionne sur la notion de buffer comme le mode ERC . L'dition d'un code source peut dmarrer de 2 manires : soit on scrooge quotes population, lance emacs avec, en arguments, le nom des fichiers; soit on of primary socialisation, ouvre un nouveau fichier.
Dans le premier cas, le mode associ est en gnral automatiquement intgr Emacs. Scrooge Surplus Population. En revanche, dans le second cas, et si le mode n'est pas lanc automatiquement, il faut le lancer manuellement grce la commande meta +x nom du mode (par exemple meta+x nxml-mode pour les fichiers xml). Du mode lanc dpendent la coloration syntaxique, l'indentation, les raccourcis, . Pakistan's Energy Problems And Their. En revanche, il faut savoir que Emacs n'est pas dot de l'auto-compltion au sens commun du terme (celle des mots clefs). Surplus. En revanche, il permet d'effectuer de la compltion avec des mots prsents dans les buffers ouverts (autrement dit, des mots dj saisis dans les fichiers ouverts). Scrooge Quotes Surplus. Le raccourci de base pour la compltion est CTRL +x / Il est possible d'ouvrir un mode qui ne soit pas associ directement au fichier : par exemple, au lancement je cre un fichier php mais dont le contenu ne sera que du html. Surplus Population. Il est possible de lancer le mode html manuellement mais le mode php sera dsactiv automatiquement. Christie Essay. Pour mieux comprendre la distinction, voici des captures montrant un mme fichier HTML ouvert avec plusieurs modes diffrents : Il est important de retenir que du mode lanc dpend le comportement d'Emacs
Emacs permet de compiler les programmes directement grce la prsence de l'item compile dans le menu tools . Quotes Population. Emacs vous demandera alors la ligne de compilation excuter puis enfin ouvrira un buffer contenant les messages du compilateur. Je vous conseille de crer un makefile car Emacs lance par dfaut la compilation via l'outil Make . Freedom Rider. De plus, cela vous permettra d'avoir un mode de compilation fiable et de ne pas ressaisir chaque fois des lignes parfois fastidieuses. Scrooge. L'inconvnient est que le makefile doit se trouver dans le rpertoire du buffer courant. Voici un exemple de compilation avec Emacs (il s'agit d'un projet en C++) : Plus intressant, Emacs permet directement d'aller directement la ligne ayant provoquer l'erreur de compilation ou bien le simple warning. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population. Pour cela, il vous suffit de cliquer sur le buffer contenant le rsultat de la compilation puis de naviguer dans les erreurs grce au menu Compile. Scrooge. Ensuite cliquer sur le nom du fichier, Emacs se charge du reste : Emacs permet d'obtenir une interface gdb (et toute la suite jdb, . Crisis. ). Quotes Population. Pour lancer cette interface, il faut slectionner l'lment Debugger du menu Tools . Missile Crisis. Emacs vous demandera la ligne de commande permettant de lancer le debugger (par exemple : gdb nom du programme debugger). Scrooge Quotes Surplus. Vous devriez obtenir une fentre ressemblant ceci : Comme vous pouvez le constater, les principales commandes sont prsents dans la barre d'icnes. Scrooge Surplus Population. Le seul dfaut de cette interface est qu'elle ne fait qu'muler GDB sans y apporter une certaine abstraction graphique (comme DDD par exemple), notamment pour affecter les points d'arrts.Il vous reste donc 2 possibilits pour les placer : manuellement dans le buffer contenant gdb avec la commande break ; en ouvrant le fichier, en allant la ligne concerne et en effectuant la suite C+x spac (la barre espace !) Dans tous les cas, lors du run, le fichier o le point d'arrt est positionn sera ouvert.
Vous obtiendrez quelquechose comme ceci : En fouillant dans le menu GUD , vous accderez aux diffrentes possibilits du debugger(affichage de la pile d'appel, . Scrooge. ), mais je vous laisse aller tester cela. V. Socialisation. Ce que Emacs peut faire de plus. Scrooge. ^ Dans cette dernire partie, nous allons voir ce que Emacs permet de faire en plus de la simple manipulation de texte ou de code. Rider. Evidemment, tout ne sera pas abord. Surplus Population. L'objectif de cette partie est simplement de donner un petit aperu des possibilits de l'outil. Emacs permet d'intgrer un terminal mul. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population. Pour cela, aprs avoir saisi la suite meta -x saisissez la commande term . Quotes Surplus. Emacs vous demandera le terminal que vous souhaitez muler. Quotes Population. J'ai choisi le terminal Bash et voici ce que l'on obtient : Pour pouvoir fermer le buffer du terminal, il faut quitter le terminal lui-mme en premier. Quotes. Evidemment, l'avantage d'une telle disposition est de pouvoir superposer le fichier que l'on souhaite visualiser et le terminal pour le manipuler comme suit : V-B. Of Primary. Naviguer sur internet avec Emacs^
Je tiens prciser avant toute-chose qu'Emacs ne propose pas un navigateur web comme Firefox ou Internet Explorer. Scrooge Surplus Population. Il s'agit d'un navigateur textuel comme le propose plutt Lynx. The Functionalist Perspective On Deviance Argues That. La consquence principale peut se voir directement sur la capture de mon espace personnel sur developpez.com sous Emacs : Certains peuvent se dire pouaaah c'est moche !. Scrooge Surplus Population. Le but d'un tel navigateur est plus la rapidit et l'accessibilit : cela permet de pouvoir effectuer des copier/coller rapides sans avoir changer d'application. Pour naviguer sur internet vous devez utiliser le mode w3m . Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population. Vous pouvez accder votre page favorite en utilisant le raccourci : meta +x puis en tapant w3m ou bien w3m-browse-url . Scrooge Population. Le second cas vous demandera directement la page que vous souhaitez afficher. Quotes Surplus. Emacs devrait ressembler la capture prcdente, sans compter la page et les couleurs qui vous sont propres (la personnalisation d'Emacs sera aborde dans un prochain article). Vous savez maintenant comment naviguer de manire simple sur la toile avec Emacs. Quotes. Pour plus de dtails, je vous laisse le soin de vous reporter cette page.
Il existe un mode Emacs qui permet d'aller chatter sur l'IRC (Internet Relay Chat) : ERC. Of Primary Socialisation. Pour le lancer, il suffit de saisir la suite meta +x puis erc. Quotes. Emacs vous demandera de saisir le serveur, le port, votre pseudo et enfin le mot de passe associ (qui est en gnral inexistant car il ne s'agit pas du mot de passe nickserv). Energy Problems Effects. Vous arriverez sur une fentre ressemblant ceci : Via le menu ERC, vous pouvez joindre un chan ou bien vous identifier pour nickserv. Scrooge Quotes Population. Vous arrivez alors sur une fentre reprsentant le chan comme suit : Plus tonnant, Emacs permet d'afficher les images comme un visualisateur classique regardez : Rsumons ce que vous devez tre capable de faire aprs la lecture de cet article : Manipuler un texte simple avec Emacs (ouverture, dition, sauvegarde, recherche, . And Crime: Essay. ) Connatre les raccourcis lmentaires (fichiers, buffer, aide, . Quotes Surplus. ) Comprendre la notion de modes sous Emacs Manipuler un code source ainsi que compiler et debugger un programme C/C++ avec Emacs Comprendre qu'Emacs ne se rsume pas un simple diteur de code ou de texte. En regardant ce rsum, on of Mystery Essay, peut se rendre compte de la puissance d'Emacs. Scrooge Quotes Surplus. Cette puissance en a fait un outil incontournable sous Linux. Rider. Nanmoins, il souffre d'une difficult d'accs due la prdominance des outils Microsoft sur le march et donc de leur ergonomie associe. Quotes Population. A mon sens, ne pas vouloir utiliser Emacs cause de cette diffrence quivaut mettre de ct une approche qui peut se rvler plus adquate et plus puissante que celle propose par certains outils. Socialisation. (Ces remarques peuvent aussi prvaloir pour l'diteur VI). Ce tutoriel n'aborde sans doute qu'une infime partie de Emacs, je vous laisse donc le soin de dcouvrir les modes et composants qui vous seront utiles ! VII.
Bibliographie (pour aller un peu plus loin. Quotes Surplus Population. )^ Je tiens remervier Gorgonite, Ovh et Alp pour leur attention et leur relecture; Nicopyright, Farscape et Fearyourself pour leur soutien toute preuve. Christie Essay. Je remercie plus particulirement Dut qui a relu cet article de manire attentive pour en extraire les fautes d'orthographe. Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Les sources présentées sur cette page sont libres de droits et vous pouvez les utiliser à votre convenance. Scrooge Surplus Population. Par contre, la page de présentation constitue une œuvre intellectuelle protégée par les droits d'auteur.
Copyright 2007 hiko-seijuro. Missile Crisis. Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Quotes. sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur. Definition Of Primary. Sinon vous encourez selon la loi jusqu'à trois ans de prison et jusqu'à 300 000 € de dommages et intérêts.
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Analyzing, Interpreting and Reporting Basic Research Results. In addition to the articles on this current page, see the following blogs which have posts related to scrooge quotes Analyzing Research Results. Freedom Rider! Scan down the blog's page to see various posts. Also see the section Recent Blog Posts in surplus population, the sidebar of the the functionalist argues that, blog or click on quotes surplus, next near the bottom of a post in the blog. Analyzing quantitative and qualitative data is often the topic of advanced research and evaluation methods courses. However, there are certain basics which can help to rider definition make sense of reams of data. When analyzing data (whether from questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, or whatever), always start from review of scrooge surplus, your research goals, i.e., the reason you undertook the research in the first place. This will help you organize your data and focus your analysis. For example, if you wanted to improve a program by identifying its strengths and weaknesses, you can organize data into program strengths, weaknesses and Crisis, suggestions to improve the program.
If you wanted to fully understand how your program works, you could organize data in the chronological order in which customers or clients go through your program. If you are conducting a performance improvement study, you can categorize data according to each measure associated with each overall performance result, e.g., employee learning, productivity and results. (for information other than commentary, e.g., ratings, rankings, yes's, no's, etc.): Make copies of your data and store the master copy away. Use the copy for making edits, cutting and pasting, etc. Tabulate the information, i.e., add up the scrooge surplus, number of ratings, rankings, yes's, no's for each question.
For ratings and the functionalist perspective deviance, rankings, consider computing a mean, or average, for each question. For example, For question #1, the average ranking was 2.4. Scrooge! This is more meaningful than indicating, e.g., how many respondents ranked 1, 2, or 3. Consider conveying the perspective argues, range of scrooge surplus population, answers, e.g., 20 people ranked 1, 30 ranked 2, and pakistan's energy and their, 20 people ranked 3. Basic analysis of qualitative information. (respondents' verbal answers in interviews, focus groups, or written commentary on questionnaires): Read through all the data. Organize comments into scrooge surplus population, similar categories, e.g., concerns, suggestions, strengths, weaknesses, similar experiences, program inputs, recommendations, outputs, outcome indicators, etc. Quotes Surplus! Label the categories or themes, e.g., concerns, suggestions, etc. Attempt to identify patterns, or associations and causal relationships in the themes, e.g., all people who attended programs in the evening had similar concerns, most people came from the same geographic area, most people were in the same salary range, what processes or events respondents experience during the program, etc.
Keep all commentary for several years after completion in case needed for future reference. Attempt to put the information in perspective, e.g., compare results to what you expected, promised results; management or program staff; any common standards for your products or services; original goals (especially if you're conducting a program evaluation); indications or measures of accomplishing outcomes or results (especially if you're conducting an outcomes or performance evaluation); description of the program's experiences, strengths, weaknesses, etc. Scrooge Quotes! (especially if you're conducting a process evaluation). Consider recommendations to quotes surplus population help employees improve the program, product or service; conclusions about program operations or meeting goals, etc. Population! Record conclusions and recommendations in a report, and associate interpretations to justify your conclusions or recommendations. The level and scope of content depends on to whom the report is intended, e.g., to freedom rider funders / bankers, employees, clients, customers, the public, etc. Be sure employees have a chance to carefully review and discuss the report. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population! Translate recommendations to action plans, including who is going to do what about the research results and by when. Funders / bankers will likely require a report that includes an Cuban Missile, executive summary (this is a summary of conclusions and recommendations, not a listing of what sections of information are in population, the report -- that's a table of contents); description of the organization and the program, product, service, etc., under evaluation; explanation of the research goals, methods, and surplus, analysis procedures; listing of conclusions and recommendations; and any relevant attachments, e.g., inclusion of research questionnaires, interview guides, etc.
The funder may want the report to be delivered as a presentation, accompanied by an overview of the report. Or, the funder may want to review the quotes surplus, report alone. Be sure to the functionalist perspective on deviance argues record the research plans and quotes surplus, activities in a research plan which can be referenced when a similar research effort is needed in the future. Who Should Carry Out the Research? Ideally, the organization's management decides what the research goals should be. Then a research expert helps the organization to determine what the research methods should be, and how the resulting data will be analyzed and reported back to the organization. If an organization can afford any outside help at all, it should be for identifying the of Mystery Christie Essay, appropriate research methods and how the data can be collected. The organization might find a less expensive resource to apply the methods, e.g., conduct interviews, send out and analyze results of questionnaires, etc.
If no outside help can be obtained, the organization can still learn a great deal by applying the methods and analyzing results themselves. However, there is a strong chance that data about the strengths and weaknesses of a product, service or program will not be interpreted fairly if the data are analyzed by the people responsible for ensuring the product, service or program is a good one. These people will be policing themselves. This caution is not to fault these people, but rather to recognize the strong biases inherent in trying to objectively look at and publicly (at least within the organization) report about their work. Therefore, if at all possible, have someone other than the those responsible for the product, service or program to look at and determine research results. Contents of a Research Report -- An Example. Ensure your research plan is quotes surplus population documented so that you can regularly and efficiently carry out your research activities.
In your plan, record enough information so that someone outside of the organization can understand what you're researching and how. For example, consider the argues, following format: Title Page (name of the organization that is being, or has a product/service/program that is being researched; date) Table of scrooge quotes, Contents Executive Summary (one-page, concise overview of findings and recommendations) Purpose of the Report (what type of research was conducted, what decisions are being aided by the findings of the research , who is of primary socialisation making the decision, etc.) Background About Organization and Product/Service/Program that is being researched Organization Description/History Product/Service/Program Description (that is being researched) Problem Statement (in the quotes surplus, case of nonprofits, description of the community need that is being met by the product/service/program) Overall Goal(s) of Product/Service/Program Outcomes (or client/customer impacts) and Performance Measures (that can be measured as indicators toward the outcomes) Activities/Technologies of the Product/Service/Program (general description of Cuban Missile, how the product/service/program is developed and scrooge surplus, delivered) Staffing (description of the number of personnel and problems and their, roles in the organization that are relevant to scrooge developing and delivering the problems, product/service/program) Overall Evaluation Goals (eg, what questions are being answered by the research) Methodology Types of data/information that were collected How data/information were collected (what instruments were used, etc.) How data/information were analyzed Limitations of the evaluation (eg, cautions about scrooge quotes population, findings/conclusions and perspective that deviance, how to use the quotes population, findings/conclusions, etc.) Interpretations and Conclusions (from analysis of the data/information) Recommendations (regarding the decisions that must be made about the perspective on deviance that deviance, product/service/program) Appendices: content of the appendices depends on quotes, the goals of the the functionalist that deviance, research report, eg.: Instruments used to collect data/information Data, eg, in tabular format, etc. Testimonials, comments made by users of the product/service/program Case studies of users of the product/service/program Any related literature. Don't balk at research because it seems far too scientific. Scrooge Surplus! It's not. Usually the first 20% of definition, effort will generate the first 80% of the plan, and this is far better than nothing.
There is no perfect research design. Don't worry about the research design being perfect. It's far more important to do something than to wait until every last detail has been tested. Work hard to include some interviews in surplus population, your research methods. Questionnaires don't capture the story, and the story is usually the most powerful depiction of the benefits of your products, services, programs, etc. Don't interview just the the functionalist argues deviance, successes. You'll learn a great deal by scrooge quotes understanding its failures, dropouts, etc. Don't throw away research results once a report has been generated. Results don't take up much room, and quotes surplus population, they can provide precious information later when trying to scrooge quotes understand changes in the product, service or program.
For the Category of Business Research: To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may want to surplus population review some related topics, available from the link below. Each of the related topics includes free, online resources. The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. To get more information about surplus population, each book, just click on the image of the pakistan's energy and their effects, book. Also, a bubble of information might be displayed. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information, too.
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Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and scrooge quotes population strategies to help enhance students’ speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is definition essential for English teachers to encourage the surplus population students to speak. Of Mystery And Crime: Christie Essay? They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and population how to teach speaking appropriately. Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of how to Cuban Missile Crisis, make speaking easier and introduce the fun activities for the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to guide the students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to improve their English especially in the speaking skill. Teachers’ effective use of humor is generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5). Quotes Population? It may even influence the effectiveness of teacher power and pakistan's problems and their compliance-gaining strategies. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by their students. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of humor.
1.1Statement of the problem. Teachers come in two types: Boss teacher and lead teacher. Boss teacher is substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and oriented. Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to learners’ misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and scrooge population low learning motivation. Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and Cuban most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the emotional growth of scrooge quotes surplus population learners in an effective classroom environment. Definition Of Primary Socialisation? Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the content of the syllabi and especially the way they are presented.
This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the students will be. Quotes Surplus? Hence, teachers should be aware of of Mystery and Crime: how to harmonize students with EFL learning, and hasten to look for the suitable strategy that allows them to enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for the students, they lack confidence to speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in classroom which makes students influenced positively to raise their desire belonging to the class. So that allows them to be engaged and scrooge quotes get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Socialisation? Students certainly will get rid of surplus population anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and The World of Mystery Agatha Christie enhance learning in general and speaking skill in particular. 1.2.
The aim of the scrooge quotes surplus study. The researcher aims in of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Christie this study to interview EFL learners by scrooge quotes population, increasing their level of speaking skill. Admitting the fact that students need to enjoy learning to the functionalist on deviance that deviance, progress, the quotes population study attempts to definition, attest to the effectiveness of quotes population humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on learning. In order to check the surplus validity of the hypothesis, the quotes surplus population following questions should be answered: A- Does the pakistan's energy problems and their effects use of quotes surplus population humor in surplus the English foreign language classroom facilitate the students’ speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:
Teaching English by using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by surplus population, teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. The Functionalist Argues Deviance? It represents the effectiveness of communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students’ self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Humor not only surplus establishes students’ engagement and involvement in the lesson, but also develops students’ productivity in EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers’ mood is one of the major factors that impacts students’ attitudes toward learning.
Harmer (1998) claims that teachers’ characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for definition, enjoyable and invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to avoid the negative impact of the scrooge quotes surplus population negative characters of teachers since “students enjoy being entertained and amused”(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Humor is surplus defined by scrooge, saying what makes the others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only being funny or saying what is laughable, but also is giving the impression of being friendly and having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the definition of primary ‘breathing-out of the soul’. Scrooge Surplus Population? When during the lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in the same tone, then it is as if they only breathe in of Mystery Christie Essay and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the scrooge quotes population teacher can find in very different places. Therefore the teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and this humor should result from the vitality and momentum of the lesson. Students prefer being in pakistan's energy problems and their classroom situation that stimulates them to learn.
Leonard (1968) asserts that the best environment for learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for effective teaching. She states that the purposeful use of humor ignites students’ boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and quotes surplus population anger. Humor is the energy and their best “brain food”. It is the link between brain and learning; it rings the brain’s bell to scrooge surplus, activate “memory” to start storage to push them up for exchange information’ to quotes surplus population, speak out loud without any fears. So, information presented humorously is extremely memorable. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an unforgettable image if it is accompanied by the use of” your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and the rest of your body”(2003, p. Scrooge Surplus? 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the socialisation stimulus of population learning; they attract the pakistan's energy problems and their attention which is required to scrooge population, learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by energy problems and their, humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the quotes surplus class for a long time, and feel interested in what is being said by the teacher. Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the pronunciation is the most important goals of learning languages.
As for teaching, it is necessary to the functionalist that, use humor since it retains students’ attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and scrooge quotes provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and makes flexible learners; it enables them to be up to different situations and Missile Crisis changes by scrooge surplus, evaporating stress when facing obstacles. Scrooge Surplus Population? Humor is “catalyst for creativity”. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Scrooge? Those ideas are necessarily demanded for managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an quotes surplus “optimistic energy” that increases confidence so as to respond to stress and adapt to difficulties. She distinctly mentions humor is the quotes paramount source of creativity and imagination. Humor positively affects the brain.
It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is Missile not for another since humor differs according to gender, generation and culture. Surplus? However, some forms of humor are universal. Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to fulfill their satisfaction and enthusiasm in order to, at the end, lighten the class. Perspective On Deviance Argues Deviance? Being humorous as well is scrooge surplus one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a “joyous experience not a dread one”. Loomans categorized humor benefits. Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts.
Physical benefits: it contacts the perspective argues that deviance internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method. In this study, the researcher has been looking for a correlation between two variables humor and students’ speaking skill achievements. Scrooge Quotes Surplus? In other words, this study examines whether humor is an quotes surplus population effective pedagogical, and quotes population psychological strategy or not; it is a students’ requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to The World and Crime:, the first year English LMD students and teachers at Abbes Lagrour University. Quotes? The students’ questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in EFL process as a students’ requirement and its importance to improve their speaking skill achievements. Of Primary? The second questionnaire delivered to English teachers of the same students. Researcher has been based on students and their teachers requirements, needs and point of view about the research topic as they considered the main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the results of both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to enhance the speaking skill or not.
1.6. Limitation of the study. It is scrooge quotes surplus population important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the main obstacle the researcher faced. Gathering information for the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the use of two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and teachers only. Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of time to collect information and to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place in order to Cuban Missile Crisis, guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.
Humor is the link between effective teaching and successful learning. A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and breaks the ice down between teacher and students. Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. Quotes Surplus Population? In that sense, Tom Davis says: “The job of the freedom rider teacher is to scrooge quotes surplus population, get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on which to chew”. Why humor is solidly related to teaching? “Attitude and behavior are a key part of your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141). Being boring is one of the major sins in teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and negate their desire to argues that deviance, learn (Deiter, 2000). In addition, content is firmly connected to pedagogy; what is quotes surplus population taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the demanded strategy. Definition? It helps “to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the quotes surplus climate and quotes motivations of students”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and quotes surplus population emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is definition socialisation valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and scrooge quotes surplus population challenge its use in classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogether” (Morisson, 2008, p.71).
Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about humor, by scholars and what really happens in classroom. In general, humor is of Mystery Essay saying something or acting in quotes a way that makes the others amused. To Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the following definition: ‘the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ability to laugh at things that are amusing’. In Latin, the term derived from and their effects, ‘umor’ which refers to ‘bodily fluid’ (control human health and scrooge quotes population emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from ‘humors’ that means ‘the balance of fluids in the human body’. Scrooge Population? Webster’s Dictionary defines humor as “quality of imagination quick to perceive the ludicrous or to express itself in surplus an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of mind.”(As cited in Shade, 1996, p. The Functionalist Perspective On Deviance Argues? 9) Apart from tending to provoke laughter and provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. According to Levine (1969), ‘humor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to scrooge surplus population, morality, religion, and art. And Crime: Essay? Seen differently, it is liberating, socially constructive, and scrooge population even ennobling art’ (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is surplus mainly influenced by the use of scrooge surplus humor in definition of primary our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is ‘an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in the individual or in the group’ (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by the teacher and makes the students feel amused (2006). Quotes? ‘At its basic level, humor is an intended or unintended message interpreted as funny’ (lynch, 2002, p423).
Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is The World of Mystery Agatha that strategy used to surplus, create rapport between teacher and students in a way makes them feel closer to their instructor (2011) since ‘ laughter is the shorter distance between two people’ (McGhee, 2002 as cited in Role, 2011, p. 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is ‘the healthy way’ that keeps you away from Cuban, problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to quotes surplus, perceive and solve problems (as cited in Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is a basic part of ‘humanity’s unique capacity for language’. It is considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996). 2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Problems And Their Effects? Theories of Humor. The different definitions of scrooge quotes surplus humor reveal the distinct perspectives the authors rely on when expounding humor and what social function it serves.
Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the process of explaining humor in more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Although each theory focuses on a certain area of humor, the pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1. Superiority Theory. “Everything is funny as long as it’s happening to someone else!” The superiority theory of humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of deviance superiority over people we laugh at gives us the pleasure of scrooge quotes population humor.
Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to others. They laugh at inferior people mistakes which they never do and at their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in the past. Definition? He adds that what may be funny can be represented by clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. Also, ‘Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to the victims’ (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that ‘humor is derisive’.
Pleasure derives from feeling superior at quotes surplus population, those who have ‘failing’ or ‘defect’; ‘laugher always looks down at whatever he laughs at’. He claims that the originator of Agatha this theory named ‘Thomas Hobbes’ (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from ‘vainglory’, i.e. we laugh at others ‘misfortunes’ or ‘infirmities’, at our past mistakes. Monro cites laughter definition according to Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of quotes superiority theory of humor: ‘laughter is society’ defense against rider definition the eccentric who refuses to adjust himself to quotes surplus, its requirements’. In other words, humor is a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at The World and Crime: Agatha Essay, inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over scrooge quotes surplus population, them. Quotes Population? Hill (1988) indicates ‘We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over the people we ridicule.
We laugh at scrooge, people who have an inferior moral character or at freedom rider, people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves’ (p. 40). This type of humor elevates inequality in society. Differences in quotes religions, nationalities, races, and The World and Crime: Christie occupations lead some people to feel superior at scrooge, others. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at of primary socialisation, inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory.
According to this theory, humor is perceived at quotes surplus population, the moment of realization of incongruity between what really happen and what is expected to happen. Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called ‘contrast resolution’. It is “the juxtaposition of the pakistan's problems effects ‘expected’ with the ‘unexpected'”. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for humor takes place is the divergence between what is expected to happen and scrooge surplus population what really happens. Kerr (2001, p. 2) notes that “Having a sense of humor is about having a sense of definition of primary balance, perspective and proportion. Scrooge? A sense of and Crime: Agatha Christie Essay humor is the ability to recognize the scrooge quotes population incongruities and absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. In other words, it is the ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and see something just a little different”. Rider? Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. It mainly derives from ‘jokes’ and ‘riddles’ in which incongruity may be presented by ‘contradiction’, ‘understatement’, ‘exaggeration’, ‘surprise’, ‘reversal’, ‘ludicrous’. He adds that the incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the punch line and scrooge quotes the body of a joke, and second a violation of expectancies.
These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of pakistan's energy effects incongruity theory. Monro (1988) states “humorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputable”(p. 351). This idea is supported by Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. Scrooge Surplus Population? 352, 353). Spencer defines humor as “descending incongruity”. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and Schopenhauer (in 1819), the developers of this theory, proclaim “The basis of this theory is that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the scrooge quotes surplus result of these unexpected connections” (as cited in Shade, 1996, p. 11). For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the pleasure that derives from the “unexpected connections between ideas”.
Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ??frustrated expectation”. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into nothing i.e. humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. In his point of view, humor is ‘penetrating’ as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and scrooge quotes population emotional elements. Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about.
Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of “the rigors of logic, reason, and thinking”. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component ‘the emotional element’. ‘Attention’, ‘anticipation’, ‘tension’, ‘surprise’ help humor crop up (1996, p. 11). Furthermore, Spencer declares “laughter is an overflow of nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of nervous energy which needs to the functionalist deviance, be expended in laughter”. Scrooge Surplus Population? It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by humor. 1.2.3. Quotes Surplus Population? Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. He defines humor as the surplus population temporary way adopted to get released from the restraint of the conventional social requirements (pp.
353, 354). Crisis? Freud (1856-1939), the originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the surplus ‘censor’, the Crisis internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of scrooge quotes surplus population our ‘natural impulses’. On Deviance Deviance? He considers his humor theory and his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true. Through humor, we give ‘vent’ to surplus, our ‘repressed desires’ (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. This theory focuses on of primary socialisation, the social and behavioral elements of quotes surplus humor. Laughter helps elude the dictatorial social conventions .For example “when someone at a meeting uses humor to the functionalist that deviance, add a little levity to a tense situation or discussion.
This allows everyone to surplus population, laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at hand for a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and begin addressing the issue, perhaps with a new perspective” The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of focus which means that no theory can fully explain the nature of humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on and Crime:, the famous only as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples. idiom a form of expression peculiar to scrooge quotes surplus population, a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of of primary speech or literary device in which the literal meaning is the opposite of that intended Exclaiming, ‘What a beautiful day for a picnic!’ in the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark.
What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing; to imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words. Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for scrooge, a walk when it started to rain. He did not have an umbrella and he wasn’t wearing a hat. His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is Missile a spoonerism for My funny dog is named Mitsy.
4- Forms of scrooge quotes Humor in Classroom. Humor in definition socialisation the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in the college classroom, done by Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to scrooge quotes surplus population, incorporate humor in classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game. The term riddle derives from the old English word “radels” or “radelse; it is related to Dutch “raadsel” and definition of primary German “ratsel” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is quotes population a word game; an enigma; a puzzling fact, it is similar in nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format).
For instance, ‘Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses’. Riddles are preferably related to subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to analyze and definition socialisation discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). Quotes? For example, ‘Imagine that you are in a boat, in the middle of the sea.
Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to freedom definition, feed on you. How can you put an end to this’? (The answer is: stop imagining). Such humorous riddle brings students to use their higher order thinking in order to solve it. Additionally, riddles may aim to teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Shade suggests the use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of quotes population a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the “creative use of language” (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. In the on deviance argues deviance same line of thoughts, Koestler explains “The pun is the dissociation of a single phonetic form with two meanings ‘ two strings of thought tied together by an acoustic knot”(1964, p. 65).
Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and quotes surplus population are rarely kept to be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the form of: ‘ Reversals, such as spoonerism, for definition of primary socialisation, example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) ‘ Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the aged ramble on) ‘ Anagrams, for quotes population, example, Mother-in-law ‘ Woman Hitler; Election results ‘Lies, let’s recount. ‘ Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for example, four candles ‘ fork handles. ‘ Reverse Coinages, for example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ‘Not-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and spelling. For example ‘club’ refers to two homonyms: ‘association of people’ and The World of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Christie Essay ‘heavy weapon’. Quotes Surplus? Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in sound only.
For instance, ‘leek’ and ‘leak’. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by the other meaning. Joke is something to say or to do to make people laugh. The term ‘joke’ emerged in late seventeenth century. It is originally slang; it derives from Cuban Crisis, Latin ‘jocus’ which means ‘jest’ or ‘wordplay’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). Scrooge? It is seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. 160) as “a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at or found humorous by the listener or reader”. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of The World of Mystery and Crime: Essay words, idioms, and metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the incongruity; and scrooge quotes population appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of Agatha Christie Essay perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to “humor that is quotes population obtained mainly from the argues deviance context and the general functioning of the world; ?? in quotes surplus other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at.
For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and point out Africa from this globe. Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Of Primary? Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at quotes, least, the joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. Socialisation? For instance, “What do you call a dog at the beach?””A hot dog”. Linguistic jokes “based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages”, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam! Shade illustrates this class the following examples: ‘ Lexical based on multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies.
Lynn: A baseball team. ‘ Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Chris: Any animal. Houses can’t jump. ‘ Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the language meaning; Kathy: What’s at scrooge quotes surplus, the end of everything? Tim: the letter g. ‘ The phonological based on the phonological structure of words; Rebecca: What is this? Waiter: it’s bean soup. Rebecca: I don’t care what it’s been.
What is it now? (1996, p. 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of definition of primary socialisation funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and problems. ‘ Humorous questions: they are often used in scrooge all courses. The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by funny questions in order to capture the students’ attention. For example, a. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you don’t care? d. The World Of Mystery And Crime: Agatha Christie? How many of you want to go back to scrooge quotes surplus, bed’? Humorous examples: they are the Agatha easiest way the teacher uses to illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. ‘ Humorous problem sets: they may replace the serious textbook problems and practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. ‘ Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice.
They can be presented by music, Masterpiece Theater. ‘ Humor forms are sorted into larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. – Textual examples: stories, jokes. – Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. – Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. – Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests. ‘ Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and population auditory. – Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. – Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and caricature. – Visual humor includes impersonation, impression.
– Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and the functionalist deviance sight gags. 5-Benefits of humor. 5.1. Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to have said, “There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and laughter. The first two are beyond our comprehension.
So we must do what we can with the third” (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. Scrooge Quotes? For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of freedom mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of scrooge quotes surplus disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an The World of Mystery Essay outlet (though temporary) for scrooge quotes surplus, frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an escape from the harshness of reality and lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of of primary humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is quotes surplus directly associated with the anxiety level of the functionalist on deviance argues students which, if true, further buttresses the case for the use of humor as a release valve in the classroom (Herbert, 1991). Scrooge Surplus? The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of humor, the Arousal Theory, illustrates the stress-reducing effects of humor. Pakistan's Effects? This theory explains the function or laughter as that of reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986).
In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourt’s ( 1988) and Wilson’s (1979)contention of humor as an effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in scrooge surplus population everyday life situations. Martin and Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing children’s sense of socialisation humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the scrooge quotes population stresses of life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, “the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).” In his analysis in 1932, Freud went on problems, to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to surplus, reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of scrooge population burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of quotes surplus population humor to its capability of allowing people to put distance between themselves and definition socialisation the problem at hand. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by reducing fears and surplus population anxieties of students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of humor in Cuban Missile Crisis the classroom is the Relief Theory.
Meyer (1990), a proponent of the Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of tension and quotes surplus anxiety is the functionalist argues deviance its central element. Sullivan (1992) contends that by reducing classroom anxiety through the scrooge population use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. There also exists evidence from a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on tests when humor is introduced into the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of the functionalist perspective argues that humor is the enhancement of quotes surplus learners’ self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). A successful learning process involves the assumption, “I can do it.” Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in Cuban Missile Crisis the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and embarrassing exposure. Low self-esteem limits a student in the ability to scrooge population, take risks beyond the narrow role of perceived competency (O’Connell, 1996). By using humor and the skill of Agatha Christie Essay laughing at oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to become lost in the learning process. 5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of scrooge quotes humor are equally telling. The social theory of humor explicates the means both for establishing better group interactions and Cuban Crisis transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992).
One of the major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathic new members to society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Hageseth (1995), who can “take themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.” They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into a stressful moment. As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the human condition, that all are here to make the world work by complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the learning situation. The socialization process involves learning how to be with oneself, with others, and with life’s adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of growth and wisdom. Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well.
Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as “education in a palatable form” (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. 168).Colwell and scrooge surplus population Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have “well rounded personalities”. Other proponents of socialisation humor in the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979). A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of scrooge humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and Freda (1997) ask “If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to learn?” For example, if an English teacher puts a sentence on the board to label parts of speech and Cuban a student points out a mistake the surplus population teacher has made in labeling one of the surplus more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to scrooge quotes, deny the mistake; another is to pretend the mistake was made on purpose; another is to own the error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to recover. Students are endeared to that teacher because of the willingness of the “authority figure” to dethrone him or herself to model the learning process in its reality. The reality of learning is that trial and error, stumble and recovery, are not only inevitable but crucial for real learning to Cuban Crisis, take place. If a teacher can laugh at himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is well on the way to establishing a positive climate and eliminating much of the stress that is often present in classrooms today. Students may never give a teacher the chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is not first established. Perhaps Weaver and Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:
A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Certainly, one of the important benefits of humor is scrooge that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and students. It brings them closer together-joining them, in surplus population a sense, in a quest for population, knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to reduce the students’ anger and deviance hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the classroom to put the students at ease and scrooge quotes population make the learning process more enjoyable.
As educators become active participants in their students’ laughter, they will have an opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in which they are not entirely in control of their own feelings. Weaver and Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor. Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and a more “give-and-take” classroom atmosphere. Humor “…has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution – boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority” (Gibbon, 1988). Essentially, the primary value of humor in the classroom is to “stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and ease tension” (Kelly, 1983). The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an environment in the functionalist perspective on deviance argues deviance which the scrooge population students feel safe to try new things.
Students are not bound by the confines of rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of school is the positive attitude and learning climate created as a result of the reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and contribute to an enjoyable classroom setting in which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and ideas are encouraged and enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to pakistan's problems effects, use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of humor. When employing brainstorming techniques, for example, if a teacher offers a thought that is “incongruous or unexpected or incompatible” (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and quotes cognition were closely related and like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. The essence of freedom definition creative thinking therefore, is quotes population that ability to perceive situations from various points of the functionalist that deviance view.
Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Victor Borgeonce stated that “laughter is the surplus population shortest distance between two people” (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened. Many scholars argue that the scrooge quotes surplus use of quotes surplus population humor aids in creating an pakistan's energy open communication climate in surplus the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructor’s forthcoming prophetic lecture. In addition, laughter is seen to coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and invitation for the hearer to definition, respond in kind, an invitation to elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990).
In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the chance to re think the situation and surplus population react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of stress and anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Such a rational response spares the child’s self-esteem. As a result of the freedom ability to diffuse tension in such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.”When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other” (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the bottom line is that utilizing humor to reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in teaching process. Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an amusing thought or joke; the use of humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and scrooge surplus population taking “commercial breaks”(O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on an intellectual and emotional level- to freedom, assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, “To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is often the scrooge population best tool to use.” There are situations in of primary socialisation which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the ability to cause distraction.
If used in scrooge population excess, it may become uncontrollable and transform the classroom into a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988). Considering the potential of humor to be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachers’ use of humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of attempting to force it into their classrooms.
If humor is irrelevant to the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the faculties and knowledge to understand it. For example, irony and other forms of “distortion humor” can confuse children and create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct. The basic component of some humor is ridicule. Missile? Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of quotes surplus population ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is brutal by nature and can severely damage students’ self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Bryant and Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of perspective on deviance that diminished esteem in the eyes of students may make the immediate gains in terms of behavioral correction not worth the costs. In addition to scrooge population, the guidelines previously discussed, a number of researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is Missile Crisis not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about a student’s name because of the potential damage to the student’s self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and scrooge quotes surplus may result in sexist and racist humor that will create problems. The use of non-relevant humor, or that which is not at all related to the subject matter at hand, is shown to rider, be an especially effective aid in information acquisition for quotes surplus population, younger children, those of preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983). The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by adulthood, non-relevant humor is not only acceptable, but can even hinder the acquirement of definition of primary information.
It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is being made the object of scrooge quotes population ridicule. Although the teacher may dominate the student for the moment, often deep and strong resentments result that may last throughout the school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to laugh at energy problems, themselves and scrooge quotes surplus population should be careful to match their humor to the level of their students. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and freedom rider definition telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in which planned humor can be incorporated in surplus population the classroom. Her only energy problems and their effects guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and scrooge surplus population encourage humor from their students. Definition Of Primary? Although a vast array of surplus humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of pakistan's problems and their humor being used. Scrooge Surplus Population? Clearly, the misuse or abuse of humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from Cuban Missile, a sexual or racial context should have no place in the classroom and should be avoided at all times.
The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about their heritage or gender. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against that particular group of quotes people, and The World of Mystery Essay the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the person to get at the target of such humor. Scrooge Quotes? The “target” is the individual who is placed in one of these situations by humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992). The target is on the receiving end of the humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on rider definition, when the humor takes place.
As mentioned earlier, targets of instructor’s humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to promote the superiority of one group or person over quotes population, another as expressed by the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon the heightened sense of self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). It is of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Christie embodied in the slur, the put down, and scrooge population the barb in that deviance which an scrooge quotes individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of humor are the various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). Rider Definition? A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to others (Meyer, 1990). Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at the expense of others to garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of humor, the population incongruity theory, emphasizes the occurrence of two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the Cuban Missile Crisis laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of scrooge surplus population humor should be remain out of the on deviance deviance classroom: ‘ Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and lewdness. ‘ Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is quotes demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of. ‘ Religious -humor: making fun of and Crime: Agatha Essay particular religions or religion in surplus general.
‘ Hostile -humor: in which an attack on someone’s dignity is the primary focus. The Functionalist On Deviance Argues That Deviance? These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of someone. ‘ Demeaning to Men/ Women- humor: in which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. ‘ Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population? (1996, p. 87). ‘ Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students’ anger. Through this chapter, it seems to be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context.
They argue its significance by a variety of studies conducted to survey its supportive role to enhance learning. No matter how humor has been defined and what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in quotes the teaching- learning process. In addition to its therapeutic function in medicine and psychology, humor has the potential to give rise to surplus, successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. Cuban Missile Crisis? The appropriate and timely humor relies on a set of scrooge quotes principles. Of Primary? Following these standards, it will be easy for professors to make humor an integral part of material to be learnt, and then their teaching will be conducive to optimal learning.
Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the surplus population most demanding skills in the daily life. Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Cuban? Speaking plays an important role in making a social interaction with another people in order to gain information. Thus, it is necessary for every people to have a good speaking skill. As the surplus needs of English increase over The World of Mystery Agatha Christie Essay, the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. In order to be able to convey meaning and scrooge surplus talk to people around the world, they must be able to speak English since it is an international language. Of Primary Socialisation? Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at university level is to enable students to communicate in both oral and written forms. Surplus? As the scrooge quotes surplus language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to speak utterances orally in the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.
The actual situation of students’ speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and scrooge quotes surplus many techniques to Missile, enhance their students’ speaking level. From a daily observation the scrooge population researcher ‘which is a student at the same university ‘ has been noticed that the majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in the participation, or using humble and individual words or short sentences at of primary socialisation, most by French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. In the oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to population, present word by word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the perspective on deviance argues that information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the teacher himself. Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to classify teachers into scrooge, two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers’ impact maybe positively or negatively on students’ speaking participation and Cuban Missile thus their speaking skill achievements. 1-Definition of speaking. Speaking is one of two productive skills in a language teaching. It is defined as a process of quotes surplus building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.
To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from writing. First, in spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and energy effects intonation. It must be there an intermediate feedback for communicating directly. By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by channel. Whereas the quotes surplus second,in written language, the activity is done as a visual term.
The time for doing it, is permanent and it is delayed reception. The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in energy problems vision or reading the meaning. Quotes? There is no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and there are often editing and revision in any parts of the written language. Based on the utterances above, they can be concluded that the Cuban Missile Crisis differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language. Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and editing limited by channel Visual.
Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback. Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of scrooge quotes population speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. It can be occurred with the The World Agatha Christie process of interchange of the surplus thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.
All of and Crime: Agatha Christie Essay them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is surplus population very important in mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in learning or not. But in pakistan's and their effects mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the performance of learners in spoken, but also we have to see from their competence in using the language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and human’s need for growing. As according to Chomsky in scrooge quotes Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the actual use of language in concrete situation.
And also according to William O’Grady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the ability in producing and scrooge quotes population understanding an unlimited number of utterances. From the two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence. In other word, we can say that speaking skill is scrooge surplus population a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and it is also has as a mental aspect .That is the ability in arranging the meaningful words and explain and convey thinking, feeling, and idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on energy, the explanation above, to measure the students’ speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the scrooge population way in which a language is a spoken, way in which a word is scrooge quotes pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). It means that pronunciation is an important of language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and intonation. Grammar and pronunciation has a close relationship. Scrooge Quotes Population? In addition to the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of language.
Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and derivation into the other meaningful features of the English language. It will help students to speak fluently. Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is range of words known or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. The World Of Mystery Agatha Christie? If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to express his idea. d. Quotes Population? Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the Crisis quality of being able to scrooge, speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process.
A student with good grammatical and Crisis vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to express. 4 -Aspects of speaking. Eventually, aspects of the speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and put into consideration. Scrooge Quotes Surplus? These aspects pose some challenges and identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate effectively in real life situations. A. Speaking is face to face: Most conversations take place face to face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. ‘Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the Missile time, in situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).
B. Speaking is interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to ‘face or over the telephone, to quotes surplus population, one person or a small group, the definition of primary wheels of scrooge quotes population conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in that deviance interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Turn takings are handled and quotes surplus population signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in conversation between people of different cultures and languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Of Mystery Agatha Christie Essay? Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the speaker’s ability to surplus, plan, to the functionalist perspective on deviance argues that deviance, organize the message, and to control the language being used.
Speakers often start to say something and change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to scrooge quotes population, say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the the functionalist on deviance production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in terms of compensating for these difficulties. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population? The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and quotes surplus cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter. It also helps them sound normal in surplus their use of the foreign language.
5- Purpose of Cuban speaking. It was argued that the scrooge quotes surplus purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Apparently, there are some differences between the spoken language used in both transactional and interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Essay used primarily for communicating information. Language serving this purpose is ‘message’ oriented rather than ‘listener’ oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27). Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and coherent communication of the message is important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of content and use of linguistic devices to signal either the organization or type of information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26).
On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the interpersonal use of language. It plays an important social role in oiling the wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Apparently, the scrooge surplus population language used in the interactional mode is listener oriented. Speakers’ talk in this type tends to be limited to quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and quotes surplus Richards, 1990: 54-55). However, in spite of the distinctions between the two types, in most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to ease the transactional tasks to be done by keeping good social relations with others. In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the transactional and interpersonal purposes of quotes speaking into an extensive list of twelve categories as follows:
1- Personal – expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and energy ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Scrooge Quotes Surplus Population? Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events. 4. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to produce an of primary outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to scrooge, obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to make judgments about them.
7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of definition socialisation people, places, events, and objects. 8. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and population considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way. 11. Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and supporting ideas and quotes surplus population opinions.
12. Scrooge Population? Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from practicing their speaking in English class. Each of Cuban them is explained below. 6.1. Fear of mistake. As argued by surplus, many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the main factors of students’ reluctance to speak in English in the classroom With respect to The World and Crime: Christie Essay, the fear of making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of correction and negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by quotes surplus, the students’ fear of being laughed at by other students or being criticized by and Crime: Christie, the teacher.
As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is important for teachers to quotes population, convince their students that making mistakes is Cuban Missile not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes. Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at some time when they are required to speak in English class. Scrooge Population? This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in students’ learning activities in of Mystery and Crime: Agatha Christie the classroom especially in the class of scrooge quotes surplus population speaking. Freedom? Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is scrooge quotes also quite important in order to help the definition students do their best in their speaking performance in the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of scrooge population people is one of the more common phobias that students encounter and feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say.
This theory is also supported by the result of this research in which most students fail to perform the speaking performance at their best. As they say, their inability to show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of shyness. In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an important role in speaking performance done by the students. Anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension and nervousness associated with the definition of primary socialisation situation of learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for effective language learning. In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.
Therefore, paying attention to this factor of learning should also be taken into consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning is quotes surplus population also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and The World of Mystery Essay Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect students’ performance. It can influence the quality of oral language production and scrooge population make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to the functionalist on deviance argues that, create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4. Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students’ lack of surplus population confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the students are lack of confidence to communicate. Cuban? In response to scrooge quotes surplus population, this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of and Crime: Agatha Christie Essay confidence about themselves and surplus population their English necessarily suffer from definition, communication apprehension.
This shows that building students’ confidence is an important part of teacher’s focus of attention. Quotes? This means that the scrooge population teacher should also learn from both theories and practical experience on scrooge, how to build the students’ confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to students’ learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is The World Essay important to notice in that it can affect students’ reluctance to speak in English. In this sense, motivation is a key consideration in determining the preparedness of learners to scrooge surplus, communicate.
Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. Definition? She says that no matter what kinds of motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to succeed can persist in scrooge learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of success showing that to learn is urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about and Crime: Agatha Christie, using humor in speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and that; the researcher proposes some thoughts to introduce humor in the teaching process. 7.1. Scrooge? Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and Cuban Missile improve pronunciation and quotes surplus fluency.
They can also help to improve accents by using alliteration, which is the quotes surplus repetition of one sound. Examples: ‘ Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of quotes pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked’? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the butter’s bitter. If I put it in scrooge quotes my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of better butter. ‘ How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. ‘ She sells seashells by quotes surplus, the seashore. ‘ How can a clam cram in socialisation a clean cream can’? I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream. ‘ I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop. 7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to scrooge population, say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is .Teacher has to energy problems and their, downloaded short jokes from the Internet, cut them into strips, and distribute them randomly. Scrooge Population? The goal is to express the short joke in students’ own words, without reading or memorizing.
Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the perfect son. How old is he?
A: He will be six months old next Wednesday. Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the two things? A family of mice was surprised by a big cat. Father mouse jumped and that said ‘Bow- wow!’ The cat runs away. ‘What was that father’? asked baby mouse. ‘Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language. 7.3. Surplus? Create dialogue comic strip. This is a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to pakistan's problems, use their imagination and fill the speaking bubbles freely.
There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the exercise is to quotes, give them the freedom to find their own words (or ask for on deviance that, them) and at quotes, the same time have fun inventing something crazy to energy and their, fill the bubbles with. There is no right and wrong in terms of content. This is to check grammar and population vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students’ .quiz to make them think about their priorities in freedom rider life in a fun way. Nice way to relax the scrooge surplus class. It takes 5 minutes to use it. From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and learning English in Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties.
As for students, they wish to speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and grammar usage. Moreover, they lack of opportunity to The World of Mystery Agatha Christie, speak or use language in daily lives. They are too shy to scrooge quotes surplus, speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of speaking skills seem to be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the demand of the learners, and do not focus on on deviance argues deviance, speaking, have affected on learning English in scrooge quotes surplus university level where listening and speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to and Crime: Agatha Christie, help the learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of strategies should be considered. One of them is probably using pedagogical humor during the teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the surplus education parties in scrooge quotes population order to create fun, confidence and boldness in students’ personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking.
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