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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Most of us are certain that we have free will, though what exactly this amounts to romeo, is much less certain. According to David Hume, the question of the nature of free will is “the most contentious question of metaphysics.” If this is correct, then figuring out what free will is will be no small task indeed. Minimally, to say that an agent has free will is to say that the agent has the capacity to exercise, choose his or her course of romeo seals, action. But animals seem to satisfy this criterion, and social we typically think that only persons, and not animals, have free will.

Let us then understand free will as the capacity unique to persons that allows them to control their actions. It is controversial whether this minimal understanding of romeo and juliet seals, what it means to have a free will actually requires an agent to Bank, have a specific faculty of and juliet seals, will, whether the term free will is Essay, simply shorthand for other features of persons, and whether there really is romeo and juliet seals, such a thing as free will at all. This article considers why we should care about free will and how freedom of will relates to freedom of action. It canvasses a number of the social in business dominant accounts of seals, what the will is, and then explores the persistent question of the relationship between free will and Apple Inc. Essay causal determinism, articulating a number of different positions one might take on and juliet the issue. For example, does determinism imply that there is no free will, as the incompatibilists argue, or does it allow for free will, as the compatibilists argue? This article explores several influential arguments that have been given in favor of these two dominant positions on the relationship between free will and causal determinism. Finally, there is a brief examination of how free will relates to theological determinism and logical determinism. 1. Free Will, Free Action and Moral Responsibility. Why should we even care whether or not agents have free will?

Probably the best reason for caring is define power relations, that free will is closely related to romeo and juliet seals, two other important philosophical issues: freedom of war photographer, action and romeo and juliet seals moral responsibility. However, despite the close connection between these concepts, it is important not to conflate them. We most often think that an for International, agent’s free actions are those actions that she does as a result of exercising her free will. Consider a woman, Allison, who is contemplating a paradigmatic free action, such as whether or not to walk her dog. Allison might say to herself, “I know I should walk the dog—he needs the romeo seals exercise. And while I don’t really want to walk him since it is cold outside, I think overall the best decision to make is that I should take him for benefits a walk.” Thus, we see that one reason we care about romeo and juliet seals, free will is that it seems necessary for free action—Allison must first decide, or choose, to walk the dog before she actually takes him outside for his walk. Of Physical. If we assume that human actions are those actions that result from the rational capacities of romeo and juliet, humans, we then see that the possibility of free action depends on the possibility of free will: to say that an agent acted freely is minimally to say that the agent was successful in carrying out a free volition or choice. Various philosophers have offered just such an account of freedom. Thomas Hobbes suggested that freedom consists in there being no external impediments to an agent doing what he wants to do: “A free agent is he that can do as he will , and forbear as he will, and that liberty is the absence of external impediments .” In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding , David Hume thought that free will (or liberty, to and child artwork, use his term) is simply the and juliet seals “power of acting or of not acting, according to the determination of the madonna will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest, we may; if we choose to move, we also may.… This hypothetical liberty is universally allowed to belong to everyone who is not a prisoner and in chains.” This suggests that freedom is simply the ability to select a course of action, and an agent is free if he is not being prevented by some external obstacle from completing that course of action. Thus, Hobbes and Hume would hold that Allison is free to walk her dog so long as nothing prevents her from carrying out her decision to walk her dog, and she is free not to and juliet seals, walk her dog so long as nothing would compel her to walk her dog if she would decide not to. However, one might still believe this approach fails to make an important distinction between these two related, but conceptually distinct, kinds of freedom: freedom of will versus freedom of and child artwork, action.

This distinction is motivated by the apparent fact that agents can possess free will without also having freedom of action. Suppose that before Allison made the romeo seals choice to walk the dog, she was taking a nap. And while Allison slept, there was a blizzard that moved through the war photographer poem summary area. The wind has drifted the romeo snow up against the front of her house so that it is impossible for Allison to get out define relations her front door and walk her dog even if she wanted to. So here we have a case involving free will, because Allison has chosen to seals, take the dog for war photographer summary a walk, but not involving free action, because Allison is not able to take her dog for a walk. Whether or not one can have freedom of action without free will depends on one’s view of what free will is. Also, the truth of causal determinism would not entail that agents lack the freedom to do what they want to do. An agent could do what she wants to do, even if she is causally determined to do that action. Thus, both Hobbes and Hume are rightly characterized as compatibilists. Even if there is romeo seals, a distinction between freedom of will and freedom of action, it appears that free will is necessary for the performance of free actions.

If Allison is brainwashed during her nap to want to walk her dog, then even if no external impediment prevents her from Apple carrying through with this decision, we would say that her taking the dog for a walk is not a free action. Presumably, the reason why it would not be a free action is because, in romeo seals the case of of physical, brainwashing, Allison’s decision does not arise from her free will. Thus, it looks like free will might be a necessary condition for free action, even if the romeo seals two are distinct. In what follows, the phrase acting with free will means engaging in an action as the result of the of physical utilization of free will. Use of the romeo and juliet seals phrase does not deny the distinction between free will and free action. The second reason to summary, care about free will is that it seems to be required for moral responsibility. While there are various accounts of what exactly moral responsibility is, it is widely agreed that moral responsibility is distinct from causal responsibility. Consider a falling branch that lands on a car, breaking its window.

While the branch is causally responsible for the broken window, it is romeo and juliet seals, not morally responsible for it because branches are not moral agents. Depending on one’s account of causation, it also might be possible to be morally responsible for an event or state of affairs even if one is not causally responsible for that same event or state of affairs. War Photographer Poem Summary. For present purposes, let us simply say that an agent is morally responsible for romeo and juliet an event or state of affairs only Bank for International if she is the appropriate recipient of romeo and juliet seals, moral praise or moral blame for that event or state of affairs (an agent can thus be morally responsible even if no one, including herself, actually does blame or praise her for her actions). According to the dominant view of the relationship between free will and moral responsibility, if an agent does not have free will, then that agent is not morally responsible for trends in business her actions. For example, if Allison is coerced into doing a morally bad act, such as stealing a car, we shouldn’t hold her morally responsible for seals this action since it is not an action that she did of her own free will. Some philosophers do not believe that free will is required for moral responsibility. According to John Martin Fischer, human agents do not have free will, but they are still morally responsible for their choices and actions. In a nutshell, Fischer thinks that the kind of control needed for moral responsibility is weaker than the kind of control needed for free will.

Furthermore, he thinks that the madonna artwork truth of causal determinism would preclude the kind of control needed for free will, but that it wouldn’t preclude the kind of control needed for moral responsibility. See Fischer (1994). Romeo And Juliet Seals. As this example shows, virtually every issue pertaining to free will is contested by various philosophers. However, many think that the significance of free will is not limited to its necessity for free action and trends in business moral responsibility. Various philosophers suggest that free will is also a requirement for agency, rationality, the autonomy and dignity of persons, creativity, cooperation, and the value of friendship and love [see Anglin (1990), Kane (1998) and Ekstrom (1999)].

We thus see that free will is central to many philosophical issues. Nearly every major figure in the history of philosophy has had something or other to say about free will. The present section considers three of the romeo and juliet seals most prominent theories of what the will is. The faculties model of the will has its origin in the writings of ancient philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle, and it was the dominant view of the will for much of medieval and modern philosophy [see Descartes (1998) and the discussion of Aquinas in Stump (2003)]. It still has numerous proponents in the contemporary literature. What is distinct about free agents, according to this model, is their possession of certain powers or capacities. All living things possess some capacities, such as the summary capacities for romeo growth and reproduction. What is unique about free agents, however, is that they also possess the war photographer poem summary capacities for intellection and volition. Seals. Another way of saying this is that free agents alone have the faculties of intellect and will. It is in virtue of define relations, having these additional faculties, and the interaction between them, that agents have free will. The intellect, or the and juliet seals rational faculty, is the poem summary power of cognition.

As a result of its cognitions, the intellect presents various things to the will as good under some description. To return to seals, the case of Allison contemplating walking her dog, Allison’s intellect might evaluate walking the social trends in business dog as good for the health of the dog. Furthermore, all agents that have an intellect also have a will. The will, or the romeo seals volitional faculty, is an appetite for the good; that is, it is naturally drawn to goodness. The will, therefore, cannot pursue an option that the intellect presents as good in artwork no way. Romeo Seals. The will is also able to exercise, command the other faculties; the will can command the and juliet body to move or the intellect to consider something. In the define relations case of Allison, the will could command the and juliet seals body to pick up the leash, attach it to the dog, and go outside for a walk. As Aquinas, a proponent of this view of the will, puts it: “Only an agent endowed with an intellect can act with a judgment which is exercise, free, in so far as it apprehends the common note of goodness; from which it can judge this or the other thing to be good. Romeo. Consequently, wherever there is intellect, there is free will” ( Summa Theologiae , q. 59 a. 3). Thus, through the interaction between the intellect and will, an agent has free will to pursue something that it perceives as good.

A widely influential contemporary account of the will is Harry Frankfurt’s hierarchical view of the define power relations will [see Frankfurt (1971)]. This account is also sometimes called a structuralist or mesh account of the will, since a will is and juliet seals, free if it has a certain internal structure or mesh among the various levels of desires and volitions. According to the hierarchical model, agents can have different kinds of desires. Some desires are desires to do a particular action; for example, Allison may desire to go jogging. Call these desires 1st order desires. But even if Allison doesn’t desire to go jogging, she may nevertheless desire to be the kind of person who desires to go jogging. In other words, she may desire to have a certain 1st order desire. Call desires of this sort 2nd order desires. If agents also have further desires to Inc., have particular 2nd order desires, one could construct a seemingly infinite hierarchy of and juliet seals, desires. Not all of an agent’s desires result in action.

In fact, if one has conflicting desires, then it is impossible for an agent to social, satisfy all her desires. Suppose that Allison not only desires to run, but that she also desires to stay curled up in bed, where it is nice and warm. In such a case, Allison cannot fulfill both of her 1st order desires. If Allison decides to act on her desire to and juliet seals, run, we say that her desire to run has moved her to action. An effective desire of this sort is called a volition; a volition is a desire that moves the agent all the way to action.

Similarly, one can differentiate between a mere 2nd order desire (simply a desire to have a certain desire) and a 2nd order volition (a desire for a desire to become one’s will, or a desire for a desire to become a volition). Madonna And Child Artwork. According to the hierarchical view of the will, free will consists in having 2nd order volitions. In other words, an agent has a free will if she is able to have the sort of and juliet seals, will that she wants to have. Madonna And Child. An agent acts on her own free will if her action is the result of romeo and juliet, a 1st order desire that she wants to benefits of physical, become a 1st order volition. Hierarchical views of the will are problematic, however, because it looks as if certain sorts of seals, questionable manipulation can be compatible with this view’s account of free will. According to the view under consideration, Allison has free will with regard to of physical exercise, going jogging if she has a 2nd order desire that her 1st order desire to go jogging will move her to go jogging. Nothing in this account, however, depends on how she got these desires.

Even if she were manipulated, via brainwashing, for example, into having her 2nd order desire for her 1st order desire to go running become her will, Allison has the right mesh between her various orders of desires to qualify as having free will. This is an untoward consequence. While more robust hierarchical accounts of the will have the resources for explaining why Allison might not be free in this case, it is widely agreed that cases of manipulation and coercion are problematic for and juliet seals solely structural accounts of the will [see Ekstrom (1999), Fischer (1994), Kane, (2005), Pereboom (2001) and van Inwagen (1983)]. c. Reasons-Responsive View of the Will. A third treatment of free will takes as its starting point the claim that agency involves a sensitivity to certain reasons. An agent acts with free will if she is responsive to the appropriate rational considerations, and she does not act with a free will if she lacks such responsiveness. Inc. Essay. To see what such a view amounts to, consider again the case of Allison and her decision to walk her dog. A reasons-responsive view of the will says that Allison’s volition to walk her dog is free if, had she had certain reasons for not walking her dog, she would not have decided to walk her dog. Imagine what would have happened had Allison turned on the television after waking from her nap and learned of the blizzard before deciding to walk her dog. Had she known of the blizzard, she would have had a good reason for deciding not to walk her dog.

Even if such reasons never occur to her (that is, if she doesn’t learn of the blizzard before her decision), her disposition to have such reasons influence her volitions shows that she is and juliet seals, responsive to reasons. Artwork. Thus, reasons-responsive views of the will are essentially dispositional in nature. Coercion and manipulation undermine free will, on this view, in romeo and juliet seals virtue of making agents not reasons-responsive. If Allison has been brainwashed to war photographer poem summary, walk the dog at romeo, a certain time, then even if she were to turn on the news and sees that it is snowing, she would attempt to Inc. Essay, walk the dog despite having good reasons not to. Thus, manipulated agents are not reasons-responsive, and in virtue of this lack free will. [See Fischer and romeo seals Ravizza (1998) for one of the primary reasons-responsive views of free will.] a. Summary. The Thesis of Causal Determinism. Most contemporary scholarship on free will focuses on whether or not it is compatible with causal determinism. Causal determinism is sometimes also called nomological determinism. It is important to keep causal determinism distinct from seals other sorts of determinism, such as logical determinism or theological determinism (to be discussed below).

Causal determinism (hereafter, simply determinism) is the thesis that the course of the future is entirely determined by the conjunction of the past and poem summary the laws of nature. Imagine a proposition that completely describes the and juliet seals way that the entire universe was at some point in the past, say 100 million years ago. Let us call this proposition P. Also imagine a proposition that expresses the conjunction of all the laws of nature; call this proposition L. Determinism then is the thesis that the conjunction of P and L entails a unique future. Given P and L, there is only one possible future, one possible way for things to social trends in business, end up. To make the same point using possible world semantics, determinism is the thesis that all the states of romeo and juliet, affairs that obtain at some time in the past, when conjoined with the laws of nature, entail which possible world is the actual world. Since a possible world includes those states of affairs that will obtain, the truth of determinism amounts to the thesis that the past and madonna and child the laws of nature entail what states of affairs will obtain in the future, and that only those states of affairs entailed by the past and and juliet seals the laws will in fact obtain. A system's being determined is different from its being predictable. It is possible for determinism to be true and for no one to be able to poem summary, predict the future.

The fact that no human agent knows or is romeo seals, able to know future truths has no bearing on whether there are future truths entailed by the conjunction of the past and the laws. However, there is and child, a weaker connection between the thesis of determinism and the predictability of the romeo future. If determinism were true, then a being with a complete knowledge of P and L and with sufficient intellective capacities should be able to benefits of physical exercise, infallibly predict the romeo and juliet seals way that the war photographer poem future will turn out. However, given that we humans lack both the romeo and juliet relevant knowledge and define power relations the intellective capacities required, the fact that we are not able to predict the future is romeo and juliet seals, not evidence for the falsity of determinism. b. Determinism, Science and Near Determinism Most philosophers agree that whether or not determinism is true is a contingent matter; that is, determinism is trends, neither necessarily true nor necessarily false.

If this is so, then whether or not determinism is true becomes an empirical matter, to be discovered by investigating the way the seals world is, not through philosophical argumentation. This is not to and child artwork, deny that the truth of determinism would have metaphysical implications. For one, the romeo truth of determinism would entail that the and child laws of romeo, nature are not merely probabilistic—for if they were, then the conjunction of the past and the laws would not entail a unique future. Furthermore, as we shall see shortly, philosophers care very much about what implications the truth of determinism would have for free will. But the point to poem summary, note is that if the truth of determinism is a contingent truth about the way the world actually is, then scientific investigation should give us insight into this matter. Let us say that a possible world is romeo, deterministic if causal determinism is true in that world. There are two ways that worlds could fail to be deterministic. As already noted, if the laws of social trends in business, nature in a given world were probabilistic, then such a world would not be deterministic. Secondly, if there are entities within a world that are not fully governed by the laws of nature, then even if those laws are themselves deterministic, that world would not be deterministic.

Some scientists suggest that certain parts of physics give us reason to doubt the truth of determinism. For example, the and juliet standard interpretation of Quantum Theory, the Copenhagen Interpretation, holds that the laws governing nature are indeterministic and probabilistic. According to this interpretation, whether or not a small particle such as a quark swerves in a particular direction at a particular time is described properly only by probabilistic equations. Although the equations may predict the poem likelihood that a quark swerves to and juliet, the left at Apple Inc. Essay, a certain time, whether or not it actually swerves is indeterministic or random. There are also deterministic interpretations of Quantum Theory, such as the Many-Worlds Interpretation. Fortunately, the outcome of the debate regarding whether Quantum Theory is most properly interpreted deterministically or indeterminstically, can be largely avoided for our current purposes. Seals. Even if (systems of) micro-particles such as quarks are indeterministic, it might be that (systems involving) larger physical objects such as cars, dogs, and people are deterministic.

It is possible that the only indeterminism is on the scale of micro-particles and that macro-objects themselves obey deterministic laws. Summary. If this is the case, then causal determinism as defined above is, strictly speaking, false, but it is nearly true. That is, we could replace determinism with near determinism, the thesis that despite quantum indeterminacy, the behaviors of all large physical objects—including all our actions—obey deterministic laws [see Honderich (2002), particularly chapter 6]. What would be the implications of the truth of either determinism or near determinism? More specifically, what would be the romeo seals implications for social trends questions of romeo seals, free will? One way to think about the implications would be by social, asking the following the question: Could we still be free even if scientists were to discover that causal determinism (or near determinism) is true? c. Romeo And Juliet Seals. Compatibilism, Incompatibilism, and Pessimism. The question at the end of the preceding section (Could we have free will even if determinism is for International Essay, true?) is a helpful way to differentiate the main positions regarding free will. Compatibilists answer this question in romeo the affirmative.

They believe that agents could have free will even if causal determinism is true (or even if near determinism is true. In what follows, I will omit this qualification). In other words, the existence of free will in a possible world is compatible with that world being deterministic. For this reason, this position is known as compatibilism, and power its proponents are called compatibilists. According to the compatibilist, it is possible for an agent to be determined in all her choices and actions and still make some of her choices freely.

According to incompatibilists, the existence of free will is incompatible with the truth of determinism. And Juliet Seals. If a given possible world is deterministic, then no agent in that world has free will for that very reason. Bank Essay. Furthermore, if one assumes that having free will is a necessary condition for romeo seals being morally responsible for one’s actions, then the incompatibility of free will and determinism would entail the incompatibility of moral responsibility and causal determinism. There are at least two kinds of incompatibilists. Some incompatibilists think that determinism is true of the actual world, and thus no agent in in business the actual world possesses free will. Such incompatibilists are often called hard determinists [see Pereboom (2001) for romeo seals a defense of hard determinism].

Other incompatibilists think that the actual world is not deterministic and that at least some of the agents in the actual world have free will. These incompatibilists are referred to as libertarians [see Kane (2005), particularly chapters 3 and 4]. However, these two positions are not exhaustive. It is possible that one is an incompatibilist, thinks that the actual world is not deterministic, and yet still thinks that agents in the actual world do not have free will. While it is less clear what to call such a position (perhaps free will deniers), it illustrates that hard determinism and Bank for International Settlements Essay libertarianism do not exhaust the ways to be an incompatibilist. Since all incompatibilists, whatever their stripe, agree that the falsity of determinism is a necessary condition for free will, and since compatibilists deny this assertion, the following sections speak simply of incompatibilists and romeo and juliet compatibilists. It is also important to keep in mind that both compatibilism and incompatibilism are claims about possibility. According to the compatibilist, it is possible that an benefits, agent is both fully determined and yet free. The incompatibilist, on the other hand, maintains that such a state of affairs is impossible.

But neither position by itself is making a claim about whether or not agents actually do possess free will. Assume for the moment that incompatibilism is true. If the truth of determinism is a contingent matter, then whether or not agents are morally responsible will depend on romeo and juliet seals whether or not the actual world is deterministic. Furthermore, even if the actual world is indeterministic, it doesn’t immediately follow that the indeterminism present is trends in business, of the romeo and juliet seals sort required for free will (we will return to of physical, a similar point below when considering an objection to incompatibilism). Seals. Likewise, assume both that compatibilism is true and poem summary that causal determinism is true in and juliet the actual world. It does not follow from this that agents in the actual world actually possess free will. Finally, there are free will pessimists [see Broad (1952) and social G. Strawson (1994)]. Pessimists agree with the incompatibilists that free will is not possible if determinism is romeo and juliet seals, true. However, unlike the incompatibilists, pessimists do not think that indeterminism helps.

In fact, they claim, rather than helping support free will, indeterminism undermines it. Consider Allison contemplating taking her dog for a walk. According to the pessimist, if Allison is determined, she cannot be free. Artwork. But if determinism is and juliet seals, false, then there will be indeterminacy at some point prior to her action. Exactly where one locates this indeterminacy will depend on one’s particular view of the nature of free will. Let us assume that that indeterminacy is social in business, located in which reasons occur to Allison. It is hard to romeo, see, the pessimist argues, how this indeterminacy could enhance Allison’s free will, for the occurrence of her reasons is indeterministic, then having those reasons is not within Allison’s control. But if Allison decides on the basis of whatever reasons she does have, then her volition is based upon something outside of Apple Inc. Essay, her control.

It is based instead on chance. Thus, pessimists think that the addition of romeo, indeterminism actually makes agents lack the kind of control needed for free will. While pessimism might seem to be the same position as that advocated by free will deniers, pessimism is a stronger claim. Free will deniers thinks that while free will is possible, it just isn’t actual: agents in fact don’t have free will. Pessimists, however, have a stronger position, thinking that free will is impossible. Not only do agents lack free will, there is no way that they could have it [see G. Strawson (1994)]. The only way to preserve moral responsibility, for poem summary the pessimist, is thus to deny that free will is and juliet seals, a necessary condition for Apple Essay moral responsibility. As pessimism shows us, even a resolution to the debate between compatibilists and incompatibilists will not by romeo seals, itself solve the debate about whether or not we actually have free will.

Nevertheless, it is to this debate that we now turn. 4. Arguments for Incompatibilism (or Arguments against Compatibilism) Incompatibilists say that free will is Apple Inc. Essay, incompatible with the truth of determinism. Not all arguments for incompatibilism can be considered here; let us focus on two major varieties. The first variety is built around the idea that having free will is a matter of having a choice about certain of romeo and juliet, our actions, and that having a choice is a matter of having genuine options or alternatives about what one does. The second variety of arguments is built around the idea that the truth of define power, determinism would mean that we don’t cause our actions in the right kind of romeo, way. The truth of determinism would mean that we don’t originate our actions in a significant way and our actions are not ultimately controlled by Apple Essay, us. In other words, we lack the ability for self-determination. Let us consider a representative argument from each set. The most well-known and romeo and juliet seals influential argument for incompatibilism from the first set of arguments is called the Consequence Argument, and it has been championed by Carl Ginet and madonna artwork Peter van Inwagen [see Ginet (1966) and van Inwagen (1983)].

The Consequence Argument is based on a fundamental distinction between the past and the future. First, consider an informal presentation of this argument. There seems to be a profound asymmetry between the past and the future based on the direction of the flow of time and the normal direction of romeo, causation. The future is open in a way that the past is not. It looks as though there is define power, nothing that Allison can now do about the fact that Booth killed Lincoln, given that Lincoln was assassinated by romeo and juliet, Booth in 1865. This point stands even if we admit the possibility of time travel. For if time travel is possible, Allison can influence what the past became, but she cannot literally change the past. Consider the following argument: The proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 is Bank for International Settlements, true.

If Allison travels to the past, she could prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in and juliet seals 1865 (temporarily assumed for reductio purposes). If Allison were to travel to the past and prevent Lincoln from being assassinated in 1865, the in business proposition Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 would be false. And Juliet Seals. A proposition cannot both be true and false. Therefore, 2 is false. So, at most the possibility of time travel allows for agents to have causal impact on the past, not for agents to change what has already become the past. Bank For International Settlements. The past thus appears to be fixed and unalterable. However, it seems that the same is not true of the future, for Allison can have an influence on the future through her volitions and subsequent actions.

For example, if she were to invent a time machine, then she could, at some point in the future, get in her time machine and travel to the past and try to prevent Lincoln from being assassinated. However, given that he was assassinated, we can infer that her attempts would all fail. On the other hand, she could refrain from using her time machine in seals this way. The asymmetry between past and future is illustrated by the fact that we don’t deliberate about the past in the same way that we deliberate about the future. While Allison might deliberate about whether a past action was really the best action that she could have done, she deliberates about the future in a different way. Allison can question whether her past actions were in fact the best, but she can both question what future acts would be best as well as which future acts she should perform. Thus, it looks like the future is open to Allison, or up to Bank for International Settlements Essay, her, in seals a way that the past is not. In other words, when an social trends in business, agent like Allison is using her free will, what she is doing is selecting from a range of different options for the future, each of which is possible given the past and the laws of nature.

For this reason, this view of free will is often called the Garden of Forking Paths Model. The Consequence Argument builds upon and juliet this view of the fixed nature of the past to argue that if determinism is true, the future is not open in the way that the benefits of physical exercise above reflections suggest. For if determinism is true, the future is romeo and juliet, as fixed as is the past. Relations. Remember from the above definition that determinism is the thesis the romeo seals past ( P ) and the laws of nature ( L ) entail a unique future. Let F refer to social trends, any true proposition about the future. The Consequence argument depends on two modal operators, and two inference rules. Romeo And Juliet. Let the modal operator ? abbreviate It is Bank for International Settlements, logically necessary that. Romeo And Juliet Seals. so that, when it operates on some proposition p , ? p abbreviates It is logically necessary that p . Let the benefits of physical modal operator N be such that N p stands for p is true and no one has, or ever had, any choice about romeo, whether p was true. Call the following two inference rules Alpha and Beta: According to Alpha, if p is a necessary truth, then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether p was true.

Similarly, according to Beta, if no one has, or ever had, any choice about p being true, and no one has, or ever had, any choice that p entails q , then no one has, or ever had, any choice about whether q is true. To see the plausibility of Essay, Beta, consider the following application. Let p be the romeo and juliet seals proposition The earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, and let q be the proposition If the earth was struck by a meteor weighing 100 metric tons one billion years ago, then thousands of species went extinct. Since I have no choice about such a meteor hitting in the past, and have no choice that if such meteor hits, it will cause thousands of species to and child artwork, go extinct, I have no choice that thousands of species went extinct. Beta thus looks extremely plausible. But if Beta is romeo, true, then we can construct an argument to show that if determinism is true, then I have no choice about anything, including my supposed free actions in the future. Madonna And Child. The argument begins with the definition of determinism given above: Using a valid logical rule of inference (exportation), we can transform 1 into 2: Applying Alpha, we can derive 3: The second premise in and juliet the Consequence Argument is define power, called the fixity of the past. No one has, or ever had, a choice about the true description P of the universe at some point in the distant past:

From 3, 4 and Beta, we can deduce 5: The final premise in romeo the argument is the fixity of the laws of nature. No one has, or ever had, a choice about what the laws of benefits of physical exercise, nature are (try as I might, I cannot make the law of universal gravitation not be a law of nature): And from 5 and 6, again using Beta, we can infer that no one has, or ever had, a choice about F : Given that F was any true proposition about the future, the Consequence Argument concludes that if determinism is true, then no one has or ever had a choice about any aspect of the future, including what we normally take to be our free actions. Thus, if determinism is true, we do not have free will. The second general set of arguments for the incompatibility of free will and determinism builds on the importance of the source of romeo and juliet seals, a volition for exercise free will. Again, it will be helpful to and juliet, begin with an madonna artwork, informal presentation of the romeo argument before considering a formal presentation of it. According to this line of thought, an agent has free will when her volitions issue from the agent herself in a particular sort of way (say, her beliefs and desires). What is important for free will, proponents of this argument claim, is Essay, not simply that the causal chain for an agent’s volition goes through the agent, but that it originates with the agent. Romeo And Juliet Seals. In other words, an agent acts with free will only if she originates her action, or if she is the ultimate source or first cause of her action [see Kane (1998)]. Consider again the claim that free will is power, a necessary condition for seals moral responsibility.

What reflection on cases of coercion and manipulation suggests to for International Settlements Essay, us is that even if a coerced or manipulated agent is acting on her beliefs and desires, this isn’t enough for moral responsibility. We normally assume that coercion and certain forms of manipulation undercut an agent’s moral responsibility precisely because a coerced or manipulated agent isn’t the originator of her coerced action. Seals. If Allison is coerced into walking her dog via brainwashing, then her walking of the dog originates in the brainwashing, and not in madonna and child artwork Allison herself. Consider, then, the and juliet similarities between cases of coercion and manipulation, on the one hand, and the implications of the truth of determinism on the other. If determinism were true, it might be true that Allison chooses to trends, walk her dog because of her beliefs and desires, but those beliefs and seals desires would themselves be the inevitable products of causal chains that began millions of years ago. Thus, a determined agent is at most a source, but not the ultimate source, of her volitions. According to define power relations, proponents of this sort of argument for seals incompatibilism, the truth of determinism would mean that agents don’t cause their actions in the kind of Bank Essay, way needed for free will and, ultimately, moral responsibility.

We can represent a formal version of the argument, called the Origination Argument, as follows: An agent acts with free will only romeo seals if she is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. If determinism is true, then everything any agent does is ultimately caused by social trends in business, events and circumstances outside her control. If everything an agent does is ultimately caused by events and circumstances beyond her control, then the agent is romeo seals, not the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions. Therefore, if determinism is power relations, true, then no agent is the originator (or ultimate source) of her actions.

Therefore, if determinism is true, no agent has free will. The Origination Argument is and juliet seals, valid. Madonna. So, in evaluating its soundness, we must evaluate the truth of its three premises. Premise 3 is clearly true, since for an agent to be an originator just is for that agent not to and juliet, be ultimately determined by anything outside of herself. Premise 2 of this argument is true by the definition of define power, determinism. To reject the conclusion of the argument, one must therefore reject premise 1. Earlier we briefly noted one account of free will which implicitly denies premise 1, namely the hierarchical model of free will. According to this model, an agent acts with free will so long as the causal chain for that action goes through the seals agent’s 1st- and 2nd-order desires. One way of emphasizing the need for origination over-against such a hierarchical model is to embrace agent-causation. If premise 1 is true, then the agent’s volition cannot be the product of a deterministic causal chain extended beyond the agent.

What other options are there? Two options are that volitions are uncaused, or only caused indeterministically. It is difficult to see how an agent could be the war photographer originator or ultimate source of romeo seals, volitions if volitions are uncaused. Similarly, for reasons we saw above when discussing the Bank for International free will pessimist, it looks as if indeterministic causation would undermine, rather than enhance, an romeo and juliet seals, agent’s control over her volitions. For these reasons, some incompatibilists favor looking at the causation involved in volitions in a new light. Instead of holding that a volition is caused by a previous event (either deterministically or indeterministically), these incompatibilists favor saying that volitions are caused directly by agents. [For an extended defense of this view, see O’Connor, (2000).] They hold that there are two irreducibly different kinds of causation, event-causation and agent-causation, and the latter is involved in free will. Proponents of agent-causation propose that agents are enduring substances that directly possess the power to cause volitions. Although many philosophers question whether agent-causation is coherent, if it were coherent, then it would provide support for premise 1 of the Origination Argument. c. The Relation between the Arguments.

The above way of delineating the of physical Consequence and and juliet seals Origination Arguments may unfortunately suggest that the and child artwork two kinds of arguments are more independent from each other than they really are. Romeo. A number of incompatibilists have argued that agents originate their actions in the way required by of physical exercise, premise 1 of the romeo seals Origination Argument if and only if they have a choice about their actions in the way suggested by the Consequence Argument. Artwork. In other words, if my future volitions are not the sort of thing that I have a choice about, then I do not originate those volitions. Romeo And Juliet Seals. And as the above arguments contend, the truth of causal determinism threatens both our control over for International Settlements our actions and romeo seals volitions, and our ability to originate those same actions and volitions. For if causal determinism is true, then the distant past, when joined with the laws of nature, is sufficient for every volition that an agent makes, and the causal chains that lead to of physical exercise, those volitions would not begin within the agent. Thus, most incompatibilists think that having a choice and being a self-determiner go hand-in-hand. Robert Kane, for instance, argues that if agents have ultimate responsibility (his term for and juliet seals what is here called origination or self-determination), then they will also have alternative possibilities open to them. According to this line of argumentation, the power to cause one’s own actions is not a distinct power from the power to choose and do otherwise. Thus, the two different kinds of arguments for incompatibilism may simply be two sides of the same coin [see Kane (1996) and (2005)]. 5. Arguments for Compatibilism (or Arguments against Incompatibilism)

Having laid out representatives of the two most prominent arguments for incompatibilism, let's consider arguments in favor of compatibilism. In considering these kinds of arguments, it is pedagogically useful to social, approach them by using the romeo and juliet seals arguments for madonna and child incompatibilism. So, this section begins by considering ways that compatibilists have responded to the arguments given in and juliet the preceding section. a. Rejecting the Incompatibilist Arguments. As noted above, the Origination Argument for incompatibilism is valid, and two of its premises are above dispute. Thus, the relations only way for the compatibilist to reject the conclusion of the Origination Argument is to reject its first premise. In other words, given the definition of romeo seals, determinism, compatibilists must reject that free will requires an agent being the originator or ultimate source of her actions.

But how might this be done? Most frequently, compatibilists motivate a rejection of the ultimacy condition of free will by appealing to either a hierarchical or reasons-responsive view of in business, what the will is [see Frankfurt, (1971) and Fischer and Ravizza, (1998)]. If all that is required for free will, for example, is that a certain mesh between an agent’s 1st-order volitions and 2nd-order desires, then such an account does not require that an agent be the romeo seals originator of Essay, those desires. Seals. Furthermore, since the truth of social trends in business, determinism would not entail that agents don’t have 1st and 2nd-order desires and volitions, a hierarchical account of the will is compatible with the truth of determinism. Similarly, if an agent has free will if she has the requisite level of reasons-responsiveness such that she would have willed differently had she had different reasons, ultimacy is again not required.

Thus, if one adopts certain accounts of the will, one has reason for rejecting the central premise of the Origination Argument. Compatibilists have a greater number of responses available to them with regard to the Consequence Argument. One way of understanding the N operator that figures in the Consequence Argument is in terms of having the ability to do otherwise. That is, to say that Allison has no choice about a particular action of hers is to say that she could not have performed a different action (or even no action at all). Incompatibilists can easily account for this ability to do otherwise.

According to incompatibilists, an agent can be free only if determinism is false. Consider again the case of Allison. If determinism is false, even though Allison did choose to walk her dog, she could have done otherwise than walk her dog since the and juliet seals conjunction of P and Apple Essay L is not sufficient for her taking her dog for a walk. Compatibilists, however, can give their own account of the ability to do otherwise. For them, to say that Allison could have done otherwise is simply to and juliet, say that Allison would have done otherwise had she willed or chosen to do so [see, for example, Chisholm (1967)].

Of course, if determinism is true, then the only way that Allison could have willed or chosen to do otherwise would be if either the past or the laws were different than they actually are. In other words, saying that an artwork, agent could have done otherwise is to say that the agent would have done otherwise in a different counterfactual condition. But saying this is entirely consistent with one way of understanding the ability to do otherwise. Thus, these compatibilists are saying that Allison has the ability to do something such that, had she done it, either the past or the laws of nature would have been different than they actually are. If P and romeo seals L entail that the of physical exercise agent does some action A , then the agent’s doing otherwise than A entails that either P or L would have been different than they actually are. Seals. Some compatibilists favor saying that agents have this counterfactual power over the past, while others favor counterfactual power over define power the laws of nature [Compare Lewis (1981) and Fischer (1984)]. And Juliet. Regardless, adopting either strategy provides the compatibilist with a way of avoiding the conclusion of the Consequence Argument by trends, denying either premise 4 or premise 6 of that argument. Furthermore, having such a power is romeo and juliet seals, not a hollow victory, for it demarcates a plausible difference between those actions an agent would have done even if she didn’t want to relations, (as in the case of coercion or manipulation) from those actions that an agent only would have done had she had certain beliefs and desires about that action. This view thus differentiates between those actions that were within the agent’s power to bring about from romeo and juliet seals those that were not. A second compatibilist response to the Consequence Argument is to madonna and child artwork, deny the validity of the inference rule Beta the romeo seals argument uses.

While there are several approaches to this, perhaps the madonna and child most decisive is the following, called the seals principle of Agglomeration [see McKay and Johnson (1996)]. Using only the inference rules Alpha, Beta and the basic rule of logical replacement, one can show that. if Beta were valid. 1 and 2 do not entail 3, so Beta must be invalid. To see why 3 does not follow from Settlements 1 and 2, consider the case of a coin-toss. If the coin-toss is truly random, then Allison has no choice regarding whether the coin (if flipped) lands heads. Similarly, she has no choice regarding whether the coin (again, if flipped) lands tails. For purposes of simplicity, let us stipulate that the coin cannot land on its side and, if flipped, must land either heads or tails. Let p above represent ‘the coin doesn’t land heads’ and q represent ‘the coin doesn’t land tails’.

If Beta were valid, then 1 and seals 2 would entail 3, and Allison would not have a choice about the conjunction of p and q; that is, she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and war photographer poem the coin not landing tails. If Allison didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing heads and didn’t have a choice about the coin not landing tails, then she wouldn’t have a choice about the coin landing either heads or tails. But Allison does have a choice about romeo seals, this—after all, she can ensure that the Bank Essay coin lands either heads or tails by and juliet, simply flipping the madonna and child artwork coin. So Allison does have a choice about the conjunction of p and q. Since Alpha and the relevant rules of logical replacement in the transformation from N p and N q to N( p and q ) are beyond dispute, Beta must be invalid. Romeo Seals. Thus, the Consequent Argument for incompatibilism is invalid. [For an incompatibilist reply to exercise, the argument from Agglomeration, see Finch and and juliet seals Warfield (1998).] b. Frankfurt’s Argument against the Ability to Do Otherwise Two other arguments for compatibilism build on the freedom requirement for moral responsibility. If one can show that moral responsibility is compatible with the truth of determinism, and if free will is required for moral responsibility, one will have implicitly shown that free will is itself compatible with the truth of determinism. War Photographer Summary. The first of seals, these arguments for compatibilism rejects the understanding of having a choice as involving the ability to do otherwise mentioned above. While most philosophers have tended to accept that an agent can be morally responsible for doing an action only if she could have done otherwise, Harry Frankfurt has attempted to show that this requirement is in fact false.

Frankfurt gives an Apple Essay, example in which an agent does an action in romeo seals circumstances that lead us to believe that the agent acted freely [Frankfurt (1969); for madonna recent discussion, see Widerker and McKenna (2003)]. Yet, unbeknown to the agent, the circumstances include some mechanism that would bring about the action if the agent did not perform it on her own. As it happens, though, the agent does perform the action freely and and juliet the mechanism is not involved in bringing about the Bank for International Settlements action. It thus looks like the agent is morally responsible despite not being able to do otherwise. Here is one such scenario:

Allison is contemplating whether to romeo, walk her dog or not. Unbeknown to Allison, her father, Lloyd, wants to insure that that she does decide to walk the dog. He has therefore implanted a computer chip in her head such that if she is about to decide not to walk the dog, the chip will activate and coerce her into deciding to take the dog for a walk. Given the presence of the chip, Allison is unable not to decide to in business, walk her dog, and and juliet she lacks the ability to define, do otherwise. However, Allison does decide to walk the dog on her own. In such a case, Frankfurt thinks that Allison is morally responsible for her decision since the presence of Lloyd and his computer chip play no causal role in her decision. And Juliet. Since she would have been morally responsible had Lloyd not been prepared to ensure that she decide to take her dog for a walk, why think that his mere presence renders her not morally responsible?

Frankfurt concludes that Allison is morally responsible despite lacking the ability to do otherwise. If Frankfurt is right that such cases are possible, then even if the truth of determinism is incompatible with a kind of freedom that requires the ability to do otherwise, it is compatible with the kind of freedom required for moral responsibility. In an influential article, Peter Strawson argues that many of the traditional debates between compatibilists and incompatibilists (such as how to in business, understand the ability to do otherwise) are misguided [P. Strawson (1963)]. Strawson thinks that we should instead focus on what he calls the reactive attitudes—those attitudes we have toward other people based on their attitudes toward and treatment of us. Strawson says that the hallmark of reactive attitudes is that they are “essentially natural human reactions to the good or ill will or indifference of others toward us, as displayed in their attitudes and actions.” Examples of reactive attitudes include gratitude, resentment, forgiveness and love. Strawson thinks that these attitudes are crucial to the interpersonal interactions and romeo and juliet that they provide the basis for Bank Settlements Essay holding individuals morally responsible. Strawson then argues for two claims. And Juliet. The first of trends in business, these is that an agent’s reactive attitudes would not be affected by a belief that determinism was true: The human commitment to participation in romeo seals ordinary interpersonal relationships is, I think, too thoroughgoing and deeply rooted for Apple Essay us to take seriously the thought that a general theoretical conviction might so change our world that, in it, there were no longer such things as inter-personal relationships as we normally understand them.… A sustained objectivity of inter-personal attitude, and the human isolation which that would entail, does not seem to romeo, be something of which human beings would be capable, even if some general truth were a theoretical ground for it.

Furthermore, Strawson also argues for war photographer poem summary a normative claim: the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. He thinks that there are two kinds of cases where it is appropriate to suspend our reactive attitudes. One involves agents, such as young children or the mentally disabled, who are not moral agents. Strawson thinks that we should not have reactive attitudes toward non-moral agents. The second kind of case where it is appropriate to romeo, suspend our reactive attitudes are those in which while the agent is define relations, a moral agent, her action toward us is not connected to romeo, her agency in the correct way. For instance, while I might have the reactive attitude of resentment towards someone who bumps into benefits of physical exercise me and makes me spill my drink, if I were to romeo and juliet seals, find out that the war photographer person was pushed into me, I would not be justified in resenting that individual. The truth of determinism, however, would neither entail that no agents are moral agents nor that none of an agent’s actions are connected to her moral agency. Thus, Strawson thinks, the truth of determinism should not undermine our reactive attitudes. Seals. Since moral responsibility is based on the reactive attitudes, Strawson thinks that moral responsibility is compatible with the Apple Inc. Essay truth of and juliet, determinism. And if free will is a requirement for power moral responsibility, Strawson’s argument gives support to compatibilism.

The above discussion should help explain the and juliet perennial attraction philosophers have to the issues surrounding free will, particularly as it relates to causal determinism. However, free will is also intimately related to a number of other recurrent issues in the history of relations, philosophy. In this final section, I will briefly articulate two other kinds of determinism and show how they are connected to free will. The debate about free will and romeo and juliet causal determinism parallels, in many ways, another debate about free will, this one stemming from what is often called ‘theological determinism’. Some religious traditions hold that God is social trends, ultimately responsible for everything that happens. According to these traditions, God’s willing x is necessary and sufficient for x . But if He is ultimately responsible for everything in virtue of what He wills, then He is ultimately responsible for all the actions and volitions performed by agents. God’s willing that Allison take the dog for a walk is thus necessary and sufficient for Allison taking the dog for romeo seals a walk.

But if this is true, it is hard to see how Allison could have free will. Benefits Of Physical. The problem becomes especially astute when considering tradition doctrines of eternal punishment. The traditional Christian doctrine of Hell, for example, is romeo, that Hell is a place of eternal punishment for non-repentant sinners. But if theological determinism is true, then whether or not agents repent is ultimately up to God, not to the agents themselves. This worry over free will thus gives rise to a particular version of the problem of evil: why does God not will that all come to faith, when His having such a will is sufficient for their salvation? [For a discussion of these, and related issues, see Helm, (1994).] In addition to the causal and theological forms of determinism, there is also logical determinism.

Logical determinism builds off the law of excluded middle and holds that propositions about Apple Essay, what agents will do in the future already have a truth value. For instance, the proposition Allison will take the dog for a walk next Thursday is romeo and juliet, already true or false. Assume that it is benefits of physical, true. Since token propositions cannot change in truth value over time, it was true a million years ago that Allison would walk her dog next Thursday. But the truth of the relevant proposition is sufficient for her actually taking the dog for a walk (after all, if it is true that she will walk the dog, then she will walk the romeo and juliet seals dog). But then it looks like no matter what happens, Allison will in fact take her dog for a walk next Thursday and Essay that this has always been the case.

However, it is and juliet seals, hard to see how Allison’s deciding to walk the dog can be a free decision since she must (given that the relevant token proposition is true and was true a million years ago) decide to walk him. In response to this problem, some philosophers have attempted to show that free will is compatible with the and child artwork existence of true propositions about what we will do in the future, and others have denied that propositions about future free actions have a truth value, that is, that the law of and juliet, excluded middle fails for some propositions. [For an introduction to these issues, see Finch and Warfield, (1999) and Kane, (2002).] If God is benefits of physical exercise, a being who knows the truth value of every proposition, this debate also connects with the debate over the relationship between divine foreknowledge and free will. From this brief survey, we see that free will touches on central issues in and juliet seals metaphysics, philosophy of human nature, action theory, ethics and social trends in business the philosophy of religion. Furthermore, we’ve seen that there are competing views regarding virtually every aspect of and juliet, free will (including whether there is, or even could be, such a thing). Apple Essay. Perhaps this partially explains the perennial philosophical interest in the topic.

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Analyse et r©sum© : Ajax de Sophocle - Litt©rature - Terminale L. Seals! digiSchool Bac L vous propose ce cours de Litt©rature niveau Terminale L , r©dig© par notre professeur, consacr© l'oeuvre tragique de Sophocle , Ajax . Relations! Seules sept trag©dies de Sophocle nous sont parvenues. Romeo! Si la datation de certaines d'entre elles sont hasardeuses, les critiques s'accordent sur le fait qu' Ajax de Sophocle aurait ©t© la premi¨re des trag©dies qu'il aurait ©crites, et qu'elle aurait ©t© cr©©e aux alentours de 445 avant J©sus-Christ. Bank! Guerrier grec, Ajax s'©tait engag© dans l'arm©e d'Agamemnon, pour d©fendre l'honneur perdu de M©n©las, dont le troyen P¢ris avait enlev© la femme, H©l¨ne. Romeo And Juliet Seals! Lorsqu'Achille meurt, une querelle oppose Ulysse et Ajax, qui veulent tous deux obtenir ses armes, qui avaient ©t© forg©es par H©pha¯stos. For International Essay! Selon Hom¨re, ce sont les Troyens qui d©signent Ulysse comme nouveau propri©taire des armes ; mais Sophocle fait des dirigeants grecs les preneurs de d©cision. Romeo And Juliet Seals! Ajax, pris de folie, massacre alors le b©tail de l'arm©e grecque : c'est sur cet ©pisode que s'ouvre la trag©die sophocl©enne. Benefits! Le texte original d'Ajax de Sophocle se compose de 1420 vers. And Juliet! Quatre cents de ces vers sont chant©s, notamment par le chœur. And Child Artwork! La trag©die grecque ne connaissait pas la division en actes : cependant, sa structure n'en ©tait pas moins extrªmement pr©cise. Ajax de Sophocle comprend quatre ©pisodes, ainsi qu'un prologue et un exodos. And Juliet Seals! Afin que le spectateur saisisse au mieux l'©volution de ces ©pisodes, ils sont s©par©s par une intervention chant©e du chœur : ces interventions chant©es s'appellent, en grec, des stasima.

Parmi les trag©dies de Sophocle , Ajax est probablement celle dont la structure est la moins travaill©e, certains ©l©ments se chevauchant, et certains passages se contredisant ( Ajax revient sur sa d©cision de se suicider, dans la sc¨ne pr©c©dant imm©diatement celle de son suicide). Social! Ajax comporte huit personnages principaux , ainsi que le chœur, compos© de matelots salaminiens (originaires de Salamine, l'®le dont sont eux-mªmes originaires Ajax et Teucros). Romeo! AJAX , fils de T©lamon, est un guerrier grec, engag© dans la guerre de Troie aux c´t©s d'Achille et d'Ulysse. Social In Business! Ajax est le fr¨re de Teucros, ainsi que le compagnon de Tecmesse, qu'il retient prisonni¨re. Romeo And Juliet! Tecmesse lui a ©galement donn© un fils, qui appara®t dans la pi¨ce : Eurysac¨s. Inc. Essay! Il est renomm© pour son courage, mais aussi pour sa farouche ind©pendance des dieux, qui lui vaudra la condamnation d'Ath©na dans la trag©die de Sophocle. Romeo Seals! Frustr© qu'on lui ait pr©f©r© Ulysse lors du legs des armes d'Achille, Ajax massacre le b©tail de l'arm©e grecque ce que Sophocle pr©sente comme un coup de folie, d©cid© par Ath©na. Define! ATHENA, fille de Zeus, d©esse de la guerre, est pr©sente dans la sc¨ne d'ouverture de la trag©die.

Elle est vex©e qu' Ajax ait, auparavant, refus© son aide dans la bataille car il estimait devoir gagner le combat sans aide aucune : (. And Juliet Seals! ) comme la divine Ath©na l'invitait tourner son bras meurtrier du c´t© de l'ennemi, il lui fait cette r©ponse effrayante, inou¯e : Va assister, ma®tresse, les autres Argiens, ce n'est pas o¹ je suis que le front craquera. Define! C'est par de tels propos qu'il s'est attir© la col¨re implacable de la d©esse : ses pensers ne sont pas d'un homme (p. Seals! 159, Trag©dies compl¨tes de Sophocle, ©d. Social In Business! Folio classique) ULYSSE. Romeo! Le c©l¨bre guerrier originaire d'Ithaque combat aux c´t©s d' Ajax et d'Achille dans le camp des grecs. Power! Cependant, une rivalit© les oppose, concernant notamment l'attribution des armes d'Achille apr¨s sa mort : selon Hom¨re, ce sont les Troyens qui d©cident d'accorder le prix de la bravoure Ulysse plut´t qu' Ajax, mais selon Sophocle, il s'agit des responsables de l'arm©e grecque. Seals! Lors du prologue de la trag©die de Sophocle , Ath©na permet Ulysse d'entendre Ajax avouer qu'il a massacr© le b©tail en pensant massacrer l'arm©e. Lors du dernier ©pisode, c'est Ulysse qui r©ussit convaincre Agamemnon d'accorder les honneurs fun¨bres Ajax, son ennemi : la pi¨ce de Sophocle est donc une glorification du personnage d'Ulysse, plus encore qu'une r©habilitation d'Ajax . Bank Settlements Essay! TECMESSE, fille de T©leutas, a ©t© enlev©e par Ajax pendant la guerre de Troie, apr¨s que celui-ci ait tu© son p¨re. Romeo And Juliet! Elle devient la compagne d'Ajax (et mªme, selon d'autres sources, son ©pouse), et lui donne un fils : Eurysac¨s (bien que, selon d'autres sources mythologiques, il y ait eu en r©alit© un autre fils). Apple Inc.! MELENAS est le fr¨re d'Agamemnon, qui dirige l'arm©e grecque.

C'est par l'enl¨vement de sa femme H©l¨ne par P¢ris que la guerre de Troie est d©clench©e. Romeo And Juliet Seals! Lors du quatri¨me ©pisode, apr¨s le suicide d'Ajax , M©l©nas refuse de rendre les honneurs fun¨bres Ajax , puisque le massacre du b©tail ©tait symboliquement un massacre des membres de l'arm©e grecque. Summary! AGAMEMNON, fr¨re de M©l©nas et roi d'Argos et de Myc¨nes, dirige l'arm©e grecque dans la guerre de Troie. And Juliet Seals! Apr¨s que M©l©nas ait refus© la s©pulture Ajax dans le quatri¨me ©pisode face Teucros, c'est lui qui s'oppose frontalement Ulysse cette fois dans l'exodos, pour refuser encore une fois cette s©pulture. Social Trends! TEUCROS est le fr¨re d'Ajax . Seals! Dans la pi¨ce de Sophocle , il n'appara®t jamais en mªme temps que son fr¨re, si bien qu'on peut supposer que les deux personnages ©taient incarn©s par un seul et mªme acteur. Apple Inc.! Apr¨s avoir appris le coup de folie d' Ajax , Teucros arrive, pour essayer de le prot©ger : il arrive bien s»r trop tard. Romeo And Juliet! LE MESSAGER survient au troisi¨me ©pisode. Trends In Business! Porteur d'un message du devin Calchas, il recommande de ne pas laisser Ajax sortir de sa tente, car il risque de mourir. Tecmesse, effray©e, part alors sa recherche, mais ne retrouve que son cadavre. Romeo Seals! Le prologue s'ouvre sur la d©esse Ath©na, qui discute avec Ulysse.

Elle lui apprend qu'Ajax, pris de folie, a, durant la nuit, massacr© le b©tail de l'arm©e grecque : il voulait en r©alit© tuer les dirigeants de l'arm©e, mais elle l'a fait les confondre avec des animaux. Power Relations! Se rendant invisible ses yeux, Ath©na permet Ulysse de voir les sentiments haineux qu'Ajax entretient son ©gard depuis qu'il a obtenu les armes d'Achille sa place. And Juliet! Lors du premier ©pisode , Tecmesse apprend, en dialoguant avec le coryph©e, la r©alit© des actes d'Ajax. Madonna And Child Artwork! Le h©ros revient alors lui, d©sesp©r© par ses actes, et annonce alors sa volont© de mettre fin ses jours pour palier au d©shonneur : Ou vivre noblement, ou noblement p©rir, voil la r¨gle pour qui est d'un bon sang. Romeo Seals! Ajax fait ses adieux son jeune fils, Eurysac¨s.

Dans un deuxi¨me ©pisode , Ajax pr©sente un discours contradictoire face Tecmesse et au choeur : il laisse entendre qu'il a renonc© au suicide : Moi-mªme, qui montrais il n'y a qu'un instant une r©sistance tout aussi farouche qu'un acier sortant de la trempe, je sens mollir maintenant ce langage si tranchant, lorsque j'entends cette femme. Apple Essay! La piti© me d©fend de la laisse veuve, et mon fils orphelin, au milieu de mes ennemis (p. Seals! 155, Trag©dies compl¨tes, ©d. Madonna And Child Artwork! Folio classique). And Juliet! En contradiction avec l'©pisode pr©c©dent, le troisi¨me ©pisode montre un messager apportant la parole du devin Calchas : il faut empªcher Ajax de sortir, pour que sa vie soit sauve. Power Relations! Tecmesse et le choeur partent sa recherche pour le sauver, mais ils arriveront trop tard. Romeo Seals! Seul sur sc¨ne, Ajax plante l'©p©e qui lui avait ©t© offerte par son ennemi Hector dans le sol, avant de se jeter dessus.

Au quatri¨me ©pisode , Teucros, le fr¨re d'Ajax, qu'on avait averti de la folie de son fr¨re, vient pour tenter de le sauver. Define Relations! Arriv© trop tard, il tente de convaincre M©n©las d'accorder les honneurs fun¨bres son fr¨re. Seals! Lors de l' exodos (dernier ©pisode), c'est finalement Ulysse qui convainc Agamemnon, fr¨re de M©n©las et chef de l'arm©e grecque, d'enterrer Ajax. War Photographer Summary! SOPHOCLE ET LA REECRITURE DU MYTHE. Sophocle n'invente pas la l©gende d'Ajax : celle-ci ©tait d©j pr©sente dans de nombreux textes de mythologie, et avait ©t© reprise par Hom¨re dans l'Iliade. Romeo And Juliet! Cependant, il modifie certains ©l©ments de la l©gende, et contribue, par sa trag©die, l'©dification du mythe d'Ajax . Bank Settlements! L'intervention d'Ath©na est un premier ajout sophocl©en : selon les premi¨res versions du mythe, Ajax ©tait pris d'un acc¨s de folie, de rage, qui lui faisait abattre le b©tail de l'arm©e grecque. And Juliet Seals! Or, d¨s le prologue, Sophocle pr©cise, en faisant intervenir le personnage de la d©esse Ath©na, que c'est elle qui a aveugl© Ajax pour qu'il tue le b©tail, alors qu'il souhaitait en r©alit© s'en prendre. Madonna! aux membres de l'arm©e grecque eux-mªmes, et particuli¨rement Ulysse : ULYSSE : Mais pourquoi s'ªtre alors ru© contre des bªtes ? ATHENA : Il croyait qu'il trempait ses mains dans votre sang. Romeo Seals! ULYSSE : Alors, vraiment, son plan visait les Argiens ? ATHENA : Et il l'e»t achev©, si je n'avais veill©. Define Relations! (p. Seals! 136, ©d.

Folio classique) Ath©na prend ouvertement parti pour Ulysse : ceci s'explique par le comportement d'Ajax envers les dieux, rapport© plus tard par le messager. And Child Artwork! LE MESSAGER : (. Romeo! ) Mon fils, lui disait ce p¨re, au combat souhaite la victoire avec l'aide d'un dieu. Trends! Et lui, insolemment, follement, de r©pondre : Avec l'aide d'un dieu, p¨re, cette victoire, mªme un homme de rien la pourrait obtenir. C'est sans les dieux que, pour ma part, je suis bien s»r de ramener la gloire. Romeo And Juliet Seals! Voil d©j comment il se vantait. Define! Une autre fois encore, comme la divine Ath©na l'invitait tourner son bras meurtrier du c´t© de l'ennemi, il lui fait cette r©ponse effrayante, inou¯e : Va assister, ma®tresse, les autres Argiens, ce n'est pas o¹ je suis que le front craquera C'est par de tels propos qu'il s'est attir© la col¨re implacable de la d©esse (. Romeo And Juliet! ) De plus, Sophocle modifie l'©pisode des armes d'Achille. Madonna Artwork! Chez Hom¨re, il y a effectivement un conflit entre Ajax et Ulysse pour savoir qui obtiendra les armes d'Achille, forg©es par H©pha¯stos. And Juliet Seals! Les grecs ne pouvant d©partager la valeur de leurs deux h©ros, ce sont les Troyens qui votent, et qui ©lisent Ulysse comme ©tant le plus valeureux : les armes d'Achille lui reviennent donc. For International Essay! Chez Sophocle, en revanche, ce sont les grecs eux-mªmes qui prennent la d©cision de remettre les armes d'Achille Ulysse et non pas Ajax : cela explique le sentiment de rancoeur qu'Ajax entretient envers ses compatriotes. Les modifications que Sophocle apporte au mythe, concernant tant le r´le d'Ath©na que l'©pisode des armes d'Achille, sont autant de mani¨res de r©habiliter Ajax, de lui rendre son honneur. Romeo Seals! Ajax passe alors du statut de fou criminel, celui d'un v©ritable personnage tragique, victime de la col¨re des dieux.

Cette r©habilitation du personnage d'Ajax ne se passe pas, pour autant, d'une glorification d'Ulysse : le h©ros hom©rique, ici d©nigr© par Ajax, est celui qui obtient finalement que les rites fun¨bres lui soient accord©s. Madonna And Child Artwork! AJAX : PEU DE REECRITURES ULTERIEURES. Seals! Ajax de Sophocle a fait l'objet de peu de r©©critures ult©rieures, contrairement nombre de ses trag©dies conserv©es (Antigone, Oedipe Roi, Oedipe Colone, Electre. War Photographer! ). Romeo! La construction encore h©sitante de la pi¨ce pourrait ªtre une des causes de cet abandon. Bank! En reprenant le mythe d'Ajax tel qu'il avait ©t© expos© chez Hom¨re notamment, Sophocle le modifie pour faire d' Ajax un h©ros tragique . Seals! Cette contribution l'un des plus c©l¨bres mythes grecs rappelle l'importance de cette trag©die dans l'oeuvre sophocl©enne, bien que sa composition encore h©sitante soit souvent montr©e du doigt. Summary! Vous devez ªtre connect© pour pouvoir lire la suite. Romeo Seals! Vous voulez en savoir plus sur les enseignements du Bac L ? digiSchool vous prop.

S’inscrire au Baccalaur©at Litt©raire en candidat libre est une ©tape franchir. And Child! Les cours de litt©rature de Terminale L repr©sentent une ©preuve au Baccalaur©at. Le Baccalaur©at est un examen tr¨s redout© par les lyc©ens. And Juliet! Entre r©visions et s.

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) Case Study. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is romeo not fully reversible. This newest definition COPD , provided by the Global Initiative for Chrnonic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), is a broad description that better explains this disorder and its signs and symptoms (GOLD, World Health Organization [WHO] National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2004). Apple Inc.. Although previous definitions have include emphysema and chronic bronchitis under the umbrella classification of COPD , this was often confusing because most patient with COPD present with over romeo and juliet seals lapping signs and benefits of physical, symptoms of these two distinct disease processes. COPD may include diseases that cause airflow obstruction (e.g., Emphysema, chronic bronchitis) or any combination of these disorders. Other diseases as cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and asthma that were previously classified as types of seals chronic obstructive lung disease are now classified as chronic pulmonary disorders. However, asthma is now considered as a separate disorder and is classified as an abnormal airway condition characterized primarily by reversible inflammation. COPD can co-exist with asthma.

Both of these diseases have the same major symptoms; however, symptoms are generally more variable in asthma than in COPD . Currently, COPD is the fourth leading cause of mortality and of physical exercise, the 12 th leading cause of romeo seals disability. However, by the year 2020 it is estimated that COPD will be the third leading cause of Bank death and the firth leading cause of disability (Sin, McAlister, Man. Et al., 2003). People with COPD commonly become symptomatic during the middle adult years, and the incidence of the disease increases with age. The respiratory system consists of all the seals, organs involved in breathing. These include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.

The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for our cells to live and function properly; and it helps us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of benefits cellular function. The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and romeo, bronchi all work like a system of pipes through which the benefits exercise, air is funneled down into our lungs. There, in very small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into romeo seals the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is pushed from the blood out into the air. Bank For International. When something goes wrong with part of the respiratory system, such as an and juliet infection like pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, it makes it harder for us to summary, get the oxygen we need and to get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. Common respiratory symptoms include breathlessness, cough, and and juliet, chest pain. When you breathe in, air enters your body through your nose or mouth.

From there, it travels down your throat through the larynx (or voicebox) and into the trachea (or windpipe) before entering your lungs. All these structures act to funnel fresh air down from the outside world into your body. The upper airway is benefits exercise important because it must always stay open for seals you to be able to breathe. It also helps to moisten and warm the air before it reaches your lungs. The lungs are paired, cone-shaped organs which take up most of the space in our chests, along with the heart. Apple Inc. Essay. Their role is to take oxygen into the body, which we need for our cells to live and function properly, and to help us get rid of romeo and juliet carbon dioxide, which is a waste product. We each have two lungs, a left lung and define relations, a right lung. These are divided up into ‘lobes’, or big sections of tissue separated by ‘fissures’ or dividers. The right lung has three lobes but the left lung has only two, because the heart takes up some of the space in the left side of our chest. The lungs can also be divided up into even smaller portions, called ‘bronchopulmonary segments’.

These are pyramidal-shaped areas which are also separated from each other by membranes. There are about 10 of them in romeo and juliet, each lung. Each segment receives its own blood supply and air supply. COPD VERSUS HEALTHY LUNG. Air enters your lungs through a system of war photographer pipes called the bronchi.

These pipes start from the bottom of the romeo and juliet seals, trachea as the left and right bronchi and benefits of physical exercise, branch many times throughout the lungs, until they eventually form little thin-walled air sacs or bubbles, known as the alveoli. Seals. The alveoli are where the important work of gas exchange takes place between the air and your blood. Covering each alveolus is a whole network of little blood vessel called capillaries, which are very small branches of the pulmonary arteries. It is and child artwork important that the air in the alveoli and the blood in and juliet, the capillaries are very close together, so that oxygen and carbon dioxide can move (or diffuse) between them. So, when you breathe in, air comes down the trachea and through the bronchi into benefits of physical exercise the alveoli. This fresh air has lots of oxygen in and juliet seals, it, and some of this oxygen will travel across the walls of the alveoli into your bloodstream. Social In Business. Traveling in the opposite direction is carbon dioxide, which crosses from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli and is then breathed out. In this way, you bring in to your body the oxygen that you need to live, and get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide. The lungs are very vascular organs, meaning they receive a very large blood supply. This is because the pulmonary arteries, which supply the lungs, come directly from the right side of your heart.

They carry blood which is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide into romeo your lungs so that the carbon dioxide can be blown off, and more oxygen can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The newly oxygen-rich blood then travels back through the paired pulmonary veins into the left side of your heart. From there, it is pumped all around your body to supply oxygen to cells and organs. The lungs are covered by poem, smooth membranes that we call pleurae. The pleurae have two layers, a ‘visceral’ layer which sticks closely to the outside surface of your lungs, and a ‘parietal’ layer which lines the inside of your chest wall (ribcage). The pleurae are important because they help you breathe in and out smoothly, without any friction.

They also make sure that when your ribcage expands on breathing in, your lungs expand as well to fill the extra space. The Diaphragm and Intercostal Muscles. When you breathe in (inspiration), your muscles need to work to fill your lungs with air. The diaphragm, a large, sheet-like muscle which stretches across your chest under the ribcage, does much of this work. At rest, it is shaped like a dome curving up into and juliet seals your chest. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts and social trends, flattens out, expanding the space in and juliet, your chest and drawing air into your lungs. Other muscles, including the muscles between your ribs (the intercostal muscles) also help by madonna, moving your ribcage in and out.

Breathing out (expiration) does not normally require your muscles to work. This is because your lungs are very elastic, and romeo seals, when your muscles relax at the end of inspiration your lungs simply recoil back into benefits exercise their resting position, pushing the air out romeo and juliet as they go. The Respiratory System and Ageing. The normal process of ageing is associated with a number of Essay changes in both the structure and and juliet seals, function of the respiratory system. These include: Enlargement of the alveoli.

The air spaces get bigger and lose their elasticity, meaning that there is less area for gases to and child artwork, be exchanged across. This change is sometimes referred to and juliet seals, as ‘senile emphysema’. The compliance (or springiness) of the chest wall decreases, so that it takes more effort to breathe in and out. The strength of the respiratory muscles (the diaphragm and intercostal muscles) decreases. This change is closely connected to the general health of the person. All of these changes mean that an older person might have more difficulty coping with increased stress on their respiratory system, such as with an trends in business infection like pneumonia, than a younger person would. Risk factors for romeo and juliet COPD include environmental exposures and host factors. The most important risk factor for COPD is cigarette smoking. Other risk factors are pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoking.

In addition, passive smoking contributes to define power relations, respiratory symptoms and COPD. Romeo And Juliet Seals. Smoking depresses the activity of scavenger cells and affects the Apple, respiratory tract’s ciliary cleansing mechanism, which keeps breathing passages free of inhaled irritants, bacteria, and other foreign matter. When smoking damages this cleansing mechanism, airflow is obstructed and air becomes trapped behind the obstruction. The alveoli greatly distend, diminished lung capacity. And Juliet. Smoking also irritates the goblet cells and mucus glands, causing an and child increased accumulation of mucus, which in turn produces more irritation, infection, and damage to the lung.

In addition, carbon monoxide (a by romeo, product of smoking) combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin. Hemoglobin that is bound by carboxyhemoglobin cannot carry oxygen efficiently. A host risk factor for COPD is a deficiency of alpha antitrypsin, an enzyme inhibitor that protects the madonna, lung parenchyma from injury. This deficiency predisposes young people to romeo, rapid development of lobular emphysema, even if they do not smoke. Genetically susceptible people are sensitive to environmental factors (eg. Smoking, air pollution, infectious agents, allergens) and eventually developed chronic obstructive symptoms. Carriers of Bank Settlements this genetic defect must be identified so that they can modify environmental risk factors to delay or prevent overt symptoms of romeo and juliet seals disease. In COPD , the airflow limitation is both progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. And Child. The inflammatory response occurs throughout the airways, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature.

Because of the chronic inflammation and the body’s attempts to repair it, narrowing occurs in the small peripheral airways. Over time, this injury-and-repair process causes scar tissue formation and narrowing of the airway lumen. Airflow obstruction may also be caused by and juliet, parenchymal destruction, as is social trends in business seen with emphysema, a disease of the alveoli or gas exchange units. In addition to inflammation, processes related to imbalances of romeo and juliet proteinases and antiproteinases in the lung may be responsible for airflow limitation. Inc.. When activated by chronic inflammation, proteiness and other substances may be released, damaging the parenchyma of the and juliet seals, lung. The parenchymal changes may occur as a consequence of inflammation or environmental or genetic factors (eg. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency). Early in the course of COPD , the inflammatory response causes pulmonary vasculature changes that are characterized by thickening of the vessel wall. These changes may result from exposure to cigarette smoke, use of tobacco products, and the release of inflammatory medicators. Lung damage and inflammation in the large airways results in chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is defined in clinical terms as a cough with sputum production on most days for 3 months of a year, for social in business 2 consecutive years.

In the airways of the lung, the romeo and juliet, hallmark of chronic bronchitris is an war photographer increased number (hyperplasia) and increased size (hypertrophy) of the goblet cells and mucous glands of the airway. As a result, there is more mucus than usual in the airways, contributing to narrowing of the airways and causing a cough with sputum. Microscopically there is infiltration of the airway walls with inflammatory cells. Inflammation is followed by scarring and remodeling that thickens the walls and also results in narrowing of the airways. As chronic bronchitis progresses, there is squamous metaplasia (an abnormal change in the tissue lining the inside of the airway) and fibrosis (further thickening and scarring of the airway wall). The consequence of and juliet seals these changes is a limitation of Bank for International Settlements airflow. Patients with advanced COPD that have primarily chronic bronchitis rather than emphysema were commonly referred to romeo and juliet, as “blue bloaters” because of the bluish color of the skin and lips (cyanosis) seen in them.

The hypoxia and fluid retention leads to Bank Settlements Essay, them being called “Blue Bloaters.” One of the most common symptoms of COPD is shortness of breath (dyspnea). Seals. People with COPD commonly describe this as: “My breathing requires effort”, “I feel out of breath”, or “I can not get enough air in”. People with COPD typically first notice dyspnea during vigorous exercise when the demands on the lungs are greatest. Over the years, dyspnea tends to get gradually worse so that it can occur during milder, everyday activities such as housework. In the advanced stages of COPD , dyspnea can become so bad that it occurs during rest and madonna, is constantly present. Romeo Seals. Other symptoms of COPD are a persistent cough, sputum or mucus production, wheezing, chest tightness, and tiredness.

People with advanced (very severe) COPD sometimes develop respiratory failure. When this happens, cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the lips caused by Inc. Essay, a lack of seals oxygen in the blood, can occur. An excess of carbon dioxide in of physical, the blood can cause headaches, drowsiness or twitching (asterixis). A complication of advanced COPD is cor pulmonale, a strain on the heart due to the extra work required by the heart to romeo and juliet, pump blood through the affected lungs. Apple. Symptoms of seals cor pulmonale are peripheral edema, seen as swelling of the ankles, and dyspnea.

There are a few signs of COPD that a healthcare worker may detect although they can be seen in other diseases. Some people have COPD and have none of these signs. Common signs are: tachypnea, a rapid breathing rate wheezing sounds or crackles in the lungs heard through a stethoscope breathing out taking a longer time than breathing in enlargement of the chest, particularly the front-to-back distance (hyperinflation) active use of muscles in the neck to help with breathing breathing through pursed lips increased anteroposterior to lateral ratio of the chest (i.e. barrel chest). Emphysema is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, as it is otherwise known, formerly termed a chronic obstructive lung disease). Apple Essay. It is seals often caused by exposure to toxic chemicals, including long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. Emphysema is characterized by loss of elasticity (increased pulmonary compliance) of the lung tissue caused by destruction of structures feeding the alveoli, owing to the action of alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. This causes the madonna artwork, small airways to collapse during forced exhalation, as alveolar collapsibility has decreased. As a result, airflow is impeded and air becomes trapped in the lungs, in the same way as other obstructive lung diseases. Symptoms include shortness of breath on exertion, and an expanded chest. However, the constriction of air passages isn’t always immediately deadly, and treatment is available. Signs of romeo and juliet seals emphysema include pursed-lipped breathing, central cyanosis and finger clubbing.

The chest has hyper resonant percussion notes, particularly just above the liver, and a difficult to palpate apex beat, both due to hyperinflation. Benefits Of Physical Exercise. There may be decreased breath sounds and romeo seals, audible expiratory wheeze. In advanced disease, there are signs of fluid overload such as pitting peripheral edema. The face has a ruddy complexion if there is a secondary polycythemia. Sufferers who retain carbon dioxide have asterixis (metabolic flap) at war photographer poem summary the wrist. PFTs demonstrative airflow obstruction – reduced forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, FEV1 to FVC ration; increased residual volume to total lung capacity (TLC) ratio, possibly increased TLC. ABG levels- decreased PaO2, pH, and romeo seals, increased CO2. Chest X-ray – in war photographer, late stages, hyperinflation, flattened diaphragm, increased rettrosternal space, decreased vascular markings, possible bullae. Alpa1-antitrypsin assay useful in identifying genetically determined deficiency in emphysema. The goals of COPD treatment are 1) to romeo and juliet seals, prevent further deterioration in lung function, 2) to alleviate symptoms, 3) to improve performance of daily activities and in business, quality of life.

The treatment strategies include 1) quitting cigarette smoking, 2) taking medications to romeo and juliet, dilate airways (bronchodilators) and Apple Inc., decrease airway inflammation, 3) vaccinating against flu influenza and romeo seals, pneumonia and 4) regular oxygen supplementation and 5) pulmonary rehabilitation. Quitting cigarette smoking. The most important treatment for COPD is quitting cigarette smoking. Patients who continue to smoke have a more rapid deterioration in lung function when compared to others who quit. Aging itself can cause a very slow decline in lung function. In susceptible individuals, cigarette smoking can result in a much more dramatic loss of lung function. It is important to note that when one stops smoking the decline in lung function eventually reverts to that of a non-smoker.

Nicotine in cigarettes is addictive, and, therefore, cessation of Bank for International Settlements smoking can cause symptoms of nicotine withdrawal including anxiety, irritability, anger, depression, fatigue, difficulty concentrating or sleeping, and intense craving for cigarettes. Patients likely to romeo, develop withdrawal symptoms typically smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day, need to smoke shortly after waking up in the morning, and have difficulty refraining from exercise, smoking in non-smoking areas. However, some 25% of smokers can stop smoking without developing these symptoms. Even in those smokers who develop symptoms of withdrawal, the symptoms will decrease after several weeks of seals abstinence. Treating airway obstruction in COPD with bronchodilators is similar but not identical to treating bronchospasm in asthma. Bronchodilators are medications that relax the muscles surrounding the benefits of physical, small airways thereby opening the seals, airways. Bronchodilators can be inhaled, taken orally or administered intravenously. Inhaled bronchodilators are popular because they go directly to the airways where they work. As compared with bronchodilators given orally, less medication reaches the for International Essay, rest of the body, and, therefore, there are fewer side effects. Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are used to deliver bronchodilators.

An MDI is a pressurized canister containing a medication that is released when the canister is compressed. A standard amount of medication is released with each compression of the MDI. To maximize the delivery of the medications to the airways, the patient has to and juliet, learn to coordinate inhalation with each compression. Incorrect use of the MDI can lead to deposition of much of the medication on the tongue and the back of the throat instead of on the airways. To decrease the deposition of medications on the throat and social, increase the romeo seals, amount reaching the define power, airways, spacers can be helpful. Spacers are tube-like chambers attached to the outlet of the MDI canister. Spacer devices can hold the released medications long enough for patients to inhale them slowly and and juliet seals, deeply into the lungs.

Proper use of spacer devices can greatly increase the proportion of medication reaching the power relations, airways. Pulmonary rehabilitation has become a cornerstone in the management of moderate to severe COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a program of education regarding lung function and dysfunction, proper breathing techniques (diaphragmatic breathing, pursed lip breathing), and romeo seals, proper use of respiratory equipment and medications. An essential ingredient in Bank for International Settlements, this program is the use of increasing physical exercise to overcome the romeo, reduced physical capacity that usually has developed over time. Benefits Exercise. In addition, occupational and physical therapy are used to teach optimal and efficient body mechanics. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has received much fanfare in the lay press. LVRS is a surgical procedure used to treat some patients with COPD.

The premise behind this surgery is that the over-inflated, poorly-functioning upper parts of the lung compress and impair function of the seals, better-functioning lung elsewhere. For International Settlements. Thus, if the over-inflated portions of lung are removed surgically, the and juliet, compressed lung may expand and function better. In addition, the diaphragm and the chest cavity achieve more optimal positioning following the surgery, and this improves breathing further. The best criteria for war photographer poem choosing patients for LVRS are still uncertain. And Juliet. A national study was completed in 2003. Patients primarily with emphysema at the top of their lungs, whose exercise tolerance was low even after pulmonary rehabilitation, seemed to do the best with this procedure. On average, lung function and exercise capacity among surviving surgical patients improved significantly following LVRS, but after two years returned to about the same levels as before the procedure. Patients with forced expiratory volume in FEVI of madonna less than 20% of predicted and either diffuse disease on the CAT scan or lower than 20% diffusing capacity or elevated carbon dioxide levels had higher mortality.

The role of LVRS is at present is very limited. Beta-agonists Beta-2 agonists have the romeo seals, bronchodilating effects of adrenaline without many of its unwanted side effects. Beta-2 agonists can be administered by MDI inhalers or orally. They are called “agonists” because they activate the beta-2 receptor on the muscles surrounding the airways. Activation of beta-2 receptors relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways and power relations, opens the and juliet, airways. Dilating airways helps to relieve the symptoms of dyspnea (shortness of breath). Beta-2 agonists have been shown to relieve dyspnea in madonna and child artwork, many COPD patients, even among those without demonstrable reversibility in airway obstruction. The action of beta-2 agonists starts within minutes after inhalation and lasts for about 4 hours. Because of their quick onset of action, beta-2 agonists are especially helpful for patients who are acutely short of breath. Because of their short duration of romeo and juliet action, these medications should be used for symptoms as they develop rather than as maintenance. Evidence suggests that when these drugs are used routinely, their effectiveness is diminished.

These are referred to as rescue inhalers. Examples of benefits of physical exercise beta-2 agonists include albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil), metaproterenol (Alupent), pirbuterol (Maxair), terbutaline (Brethaire), and isoetharine (Bronkosol). Levalbuterol (Xopenex) is and juliet a recently approved Beta-2 agonist. In contrast, Beta-2 agonists with a slower onset of action but a longer period of activity, such as salmeterol xinafoate (Serevent) and formoterol fumarate (Foradil) may be used routinely as maintenance medications. Define. These drugs last twelve hours and should be taken twice daily and no more.

Along with some of these inhalers to be mentioned, these are often referred to as maintenance inhalers. Side effects of beta-2 agonists include anxiety, tremor, palpitations or fast heart rate, and low blood potassium. Anti-cholinergic Agents Acetylcholine is romeo and juliet a chemical released by nerves that attaches to receptors on the muscles surrounding the airway causing the madonna and child, muscles to contract and the airways to narrow. Anti-cholinergic drugs such as ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) dilate airways by blocking the receptors for acetylcholine on romeo the muscles of the airways and preventing them from narrowing. Madonna And Child Artwork. Ipratropium bromide (Atrovent) usually is administered via a MDI. In patients with COPD, ipratropium has been shown to alleviate dyspnea, improve exercise tolerance and improve FEV1. Romeo. Ipratropium has a slower onset of action but longer duration of action than the artwork, shorter-acting beta-2 agonists. Ipratropium usually is romeo and juliet well tolerated with minimal side effects even when used in higher doses. Tiotropium (SPIRIVA) is a long acting and more powerful version of Ipratropium and has been shown to be more effective. In comparing ipratropium with beta-2 agonists in the treatment of patients with COPD, studies suggest that ipratropium may be more effective in dilating airways and Inc. Essay, improving symptoms with fewer side effects.

Ipratropium is especially suitable for use by elderly patients who may have difficulty with fast heart rate and tremor from the beta-2 agonists. In patients who respond poorly to either beta-2 agonists or ipratropium alone, a combination of the two drugs sometimes results in a better response than to either drug alone without additional side effects. Methylxanthines Theophylline (Theo-Dur, Theolair, Slo-Bid, Uniphyl, Theo-24) and aminophylline are examples of methylxanthines. Methylxanthines are administered orally or intravenously. Long acting theophylline preparations can be given orally once or twice a day. Theophylline, like a beta agonist, relaxes the muscles surrounding the airways but also prevents mast cells around the airways from releasing bronchoconstricting chemicals such as histamine. Theophylline also can act as a mild diuretic and increase urination. Theophylline also may increase the force of contraction of the romeo seals, heart and lower pressure in the pulmonary arteries. Thus, theophylline can help patients with COPD who have heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Patients who have difficulty using inhaled bronchodilators but no difficulty taking oral medications find theophylline particularly useful.

The disadvantage of methylxanthines is their side effects. Of Physical Exercise. Dosage and blood levels of and juliet theophylline or aminophylline have to social trends in business, be closely monitored. Excessively high levels in romeo and juliet, the blood can lead to nausea, vomiting, heart rhythm problems, and even seizures. In patients with heart failure or cirrhosis, dosages of methylxanthines are lowered to avoid high blood levels. Interactions with other medications, such as cimetidine (Tagamet), calcium channel blockers (Procardia), quinolones (Cipro), and allopurinol (Zyloprim) also can alter blood levels of benefits of physical methylxanthines. Corticosteroids When airway inflammation (which causes swelling) contributes to airflow obstruction, anti-inflammatory medications (more specifically, corticosteroids) may be beneficial. Examples of corticosteroids include Prednisone and Prednisolone. And Juliet. Twenty to thirty percent of patients with COPD show improvement in lung function when given corticosteroids by define power, mouth. Unfortunately, high doses of and juliet seals oral corticosteroids over madonna artwork prolonged periods can have serious side effects, including osteoporosis, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, thinning of the romeo, skin and easy bruising, insomnia, emotional changes, and weight gain. Therefore, many doctors use oral corticosteroids as the treatment of last resort. When oral corticosteroids are used, they are prescribed at the lowest possible doses for the shortest period of war photographer poem time to minimize side effects.

When it is necessary to use long term oral steroids, medications are often prescribed to help reduce the romeo and juliet seals, development of the above side effects. Corticosteroids also can be inhaled. Inhaled corticosteroids have many fewer side effects than long term oral corticosteroids. Define Power. Examples of inhaled corticosteroids include beclomethasone dipropionate (Beclovent, Beconase, Vancenase, and Vanceril), triamcinolone acetonide (Azmacort), fluticasone (Flovent), budesonide (Pulmicort), mometasone furoate (Asmanex) and flunisolide (Aerobid). Inhaled corticosteroids have been useful in treating patients with asthma, but in patients with COPD, it is not clear whether inhaled corticosteroid have the same benefit as oral corticosteroids. Nevertheless, doctors are less concerned about using inhaled corticosteroids because of their safety. The side effects of inhaled corticosteroids include hoarseness, loss of voice, and oral yeast infections. A spacing device placed between the mouth and romeo and juliet, the MDI can improve medication delivery and reduce the side effects on benefits of physical the mouth and throat. Rinsing out the mouth after use of a steroid inhaler also can decrease these side effects. Treatment of Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency Emphysema can develop at a very young age in some patients with severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AAT). Replacement of the missing or inactive AAT by injection can help prevent progression of the and juliet seals, associated emphysema.

This therapy is of no benefit in other types of COPD. Respiratory failure Pneumonia, overwhelming respiratory infection Right-sided heart failure, dysrhythmias Depression Skeletal muscle dysfunction. Monitor for adverse effects of bronchodilators – tremulousness, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, central nervous system stimulation, hypertension. Monitor condition after administration of aerosol bronchodilators to assess for summary improved aeration, reduced adventitious sounds, reduced dyspnea. Monitor serum theophylline level, as ordered, to ensure therapeutic level and prevent toxicity. Monitor oxygen saturation at rest and with activity. Eliminate all pulmonary irritants, particularly cigarette smoke. Romeo And Juliet Seals. Smoking cessation usually reduces pulmonary irritation, sputum production, and cough. Keep the patient’s room as dust-free as possible. Use postural drainage positions to help clear secretions responsible for airway obstructions. Teach controlled coughing.

Encourage high level of fluid intake ( 8 to 10 glasses; 2 to 2.5 liters daily) within level of cardiac reserve. Give inhalations of nebulized saline to humidify bronchial tree and liquefy sputum. Add moisture (humidifier, vaporizer) to indoor air. Madonna And Child. Avoid dairy products if these increases sputum production. And Juliet. Encourage the benefits of physical exercise, patient to assume comfortable position to decrease dyspnea. Instruct and supervise patient’s breathing retraining exercises. Use pursed lip breathing at intervals and during periods of dyspnea to control rate and and juliet seals, depth of poem summary respiration and romeo and juliet, improve respiratory muscle coordination. Discuss and demonstrate relaxation exercises to reduce stress, tension, and anxiety. Trends In Business. Maintain the patient’s nutritional status. Reemphasize the importance of graded exercise and physical conditioning programs.

Encourage use of portable oxygen system for ambulation for patients with hypoxemia and marked disability. Train the patient in energy conservation technique. Assess the patient for reactive-behaviors such as anger, depression and acceptance. Education and health maintenance. Review with the patient the romeo and juliet, objectives of treatment and nursing management. Bank Essay. Advise the patient to and juliet, avoid respiratory irritants. Suggest that high efficiency particulate air filter may have some benefit. Warn patient to stay out of extremely hot or cold weather and to define power relations, avoid aggravating bronchial obstruction and sputum obstruction. Warn patient to avoid persons with respiratory infections, and to avoid crowds and areas with poor ventilation.

Teach the patient how to and juliet seals, recognize and report evidence of respiratory infection promptly such as chest pain, changes in character of sputum (amount, color and consistency), increasing difficulty in and child artwork, raising sputum, increasing coughing and wheezing, increasing of shortness of breath. Medical and Surgical Nursing by Brunner and and juliet, Suddarth’s. Medical Surgical Nursing by Josie Quiambao Udan. Manuals of Nursing Practice by for International, Lippincott. Mosby’s Medical Surgical Nursing. Daisy Jane Antipuesto RN MN.

Currently a Nursing Local Board Examination Reviewer. Subjects handled are Pediatric, Obstetric and Psychiatric Nursing. Romeo And Juliet Seals. Previous work experiences include: Clinical instructor/lecturer, clinical coordinator (Level II), caregiver instructor/lecturer, NC2 examination reviewer and staff/clinic nurse. Areas of define specialization: Emergency room, Orthopedic Ward and Delivery Room. Also an IELTS passer.